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      Clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Shaanxi outside Wuhan, China: a multicentre retrospective study

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          The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs between countries and regions. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation cases in Shaanxi. This study included 134 COVID-19 cases in Shaanxi outside Wuhan. Clinical data were compared between severe and non-severe cases. We further profiled the dynamic laboratory findings of some patients. In total, 34.3% of the 134 patients were severe cases, 11.2% had complications. As of 7 March 2020, 91.8% patients were discharged and one patient (0.7%) died. Age, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase showed difference between severe and no-severe cases (all P < 0.05). Baseline lymphocyte count was higher in survived patients than in non-survivor case, and it increased as the condition improved, but declined sharply when death occurred. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) level displayed a downtrend in survivors, but rose very high in the death case. Pulmonary fibrosis was found on later chest computed tomography images in 51.5% of the pneumonia cases. Imported and second-generation cases outside Wuhan had a better prognosis than initial cases in Wuhan. Lymphocyte count and IL-6 level could be used for evaluating prognosis. Pulmonary fibrosis as the sequelae of COVID-19 should be taken into account.

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          A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19

          Abstract Background No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao 2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao 2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio 2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir–ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. Results A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir–ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir–ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir–ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, −5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, −17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir–ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir–ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir–ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. Conclusions In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir–ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.)
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            A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)

             Tanu Singhal (2020)
            There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
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              KDIGO Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Kidney Injury


                Author and article information

                Epidemiol Infect
                Epidemiol Infect
                Epidemiology and Infection
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                30 September 2020
                : 148
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [2 ]Xi'an Chest Hospital , Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [3 ]Ankang City Central Hospital , Ankang, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [4 ]The Six Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine , Shiyan, Hubei, P.R. China
                [5 ]Baoji Municipal Central Hospital , Baoji, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [6 ]Hanzhong Central Hospital , Hanzhong, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [7 ]Weinan Central Hospital , Weinan, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [8 ]Xianyang Central Hospital , Xianyang, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [9 ]Shangluo Central Hospital , Shangluo, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [10 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Yanan University Affiliated Hospital , Yan'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [11 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Yan'an Second People's Hospital , Yan'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                [12 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, People's Hospital of Tongchuan , Tongchuan, Shaanxi, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Author for correspondence: Mingwei Chen, E-mail: chenmw36@ ; chenmingwei@

                PYS, GXR, JY, ZQL, SJD, ML, SSW, XFX, FPC, YJL, CYL and XHY contributed equally to this paper.

                © The Author(s) 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means subject to acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 29, Pages: 10
                Original Paper

                Public health

                covid-19, sars-cov-2, second-generation cases, clinical characteristics


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