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      Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in nares and affected sites of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma


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          Currently, antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are frequently isolated from canine superficial pyoderma in Japan. However, little is known regarding the nasal prevalence of MRSP in pet dogs. Here, we determined the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in nares and affected sites of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma. Of the 125 nares and 108 affected sites of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma, 107 (13 species) and 110 (eight species) staphylococci strains, respectively, were isolated. The isolation rate of S. pseudintermedius from pyoderma sites (82/110 strains, 74.5%) was significantly higher than that from nares (57/107 strains, 53.3%) ( P<0.01). Notably, the prevalence of MRSP (18/57 strains, 31.6%) in nares was equivalent to that in pyoderma sites (28/82 strains, 34.1%). Furthermore, the phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance in MRSP strains from nares were similar to those from pyoderma sites. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in the nares of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma is the same level as that in affected sites. Therefore, considerable attention should be paid to the antimicrobial resistance of commensal staphylococci in companion animals.

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          Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

          The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides.
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            Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus.

            A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme has been developed for Staphylococcus aureus. The sequences of internal fragments of seven housekeeping genes were obtained for 155 S. aureus isolates from patients with community-acquired and hospital-acquired invasive disease in the Oxford, United Kingdom, area. Fifty-three different allelic profiles were identified, and 17 of these were represented by at least two isolates. The MLST scheme was highly discriminatory and was validated by showing that pairs of isolates with the same allelic profile produced very similar SmaI restriction fragment patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All 22 isolates with the most prevalent allelic profile were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and had allelic profiles identical to that of a reference strain of the epidemic MRSA clone 16 (EMRSA-16). Four MRSA isolates that were identical in allelic profile to the other major epidemic MRSA clone prevalent in British hospitals (clone EMRSA-15) were also identified. The majority of isolates (81%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, and seven MSSA clones included five or more isolates. Three of the MSSA clones included at least five isolates from patients with community-acquired invasive disease and may represent virulent clones with an increased ability to cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. The most prevalent MSSA clone (17 isolates) was very closely related to EMRSA-16, and the success of the latter clone at causing disease in hospitals may be due to its emergence from a virulent MSSA clone that was already a major cause of invasive disease in both the community and hospital settings. MLST provides an unambiguous method for assigning MRSA and MSSA isolates to known clones or assigning them as novel clones via the Internet.
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              Multiplex-PCR method for species identification of coagulase-positive staphylococci.

              In veterinary medicine, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) other than Staphylococcus aureus have frequently been misidentified as being S. aureus strains, as they have several phenotypic traits in common. There has been no reliable method to distinguish among CoPS species in veterinary clinical laboratories. In the present study, we sequenced the thermonuclease (nuc) genes of staphylococcal species and devised a multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) method for species identification of CoPS by targeting the nuc gene locus. To evaluate sensitivity and specificity, we used this M-PCR method on 374 staphylococcal strains that had been previously identified to the species level by an hsp60 sequencing approach. We could successfully distinguish between S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. schleiferi, S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini groups A and B. The present method was both sensitive (99.8%) and specific (100%). Our M-PCR assay will allow the routine species identification of CoPS isolates from various animal species for clinical veterinary diagnosis.

                Author and article information

                J Vet Med Sci
                J Vet Med Sci
                The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
                The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science
                18 December 2020
                February 2021
                : 83
                : 2
                : 214-219
                [1) ]Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
                [2) ]Dermatology Services for Dogs and Cats, 2-11-14 Hirano, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0023, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Nakaminami, H.: nakami@ 123456toyaku.ac.jp
                ©2021 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ )

                : 21 July 2020
                : 07 December 2020
                Full Paper

                antimicrobial resistance,pet dog,staphylococcus aureus,staphylococcus pseudintermedius,staphylococcus schleiferi


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