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      mRNA accumulation in the Cajal bodies of the diplotene larch microsporocyte




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          In microsporocytes of the European larch, we demonstrated the presence of several mRNAs in spherical nuclear bodies. In the nuclei of microsporocytes, we observed up to 12 bodies, ranging from 0.5 to 6 μm in diameter, during the prophase of the first meiotic division. Our previous studies revealed the presence of polyadenylated RNA (poly(A) RNA) in these bodies, but did not confirm the presence of nascent transcripts or splicing factors of the SR family. The lack of these molecules precludes the bodies from being the sites of synthesis and early maturation of primary transcripts (Kołowerzo et al., Protoplasma 236:13–19, 2009). However, the bodies serve as sites for the accumulation of splicing machinery, including the Sm proteins and small nuclear RNAs. Characteristic ultrastructures and the molecular composition of the nuclear bodies, which contain poly(A) RNA, are indicative of Cajal bodies (CBs). Here, we demonstrated the presence of several housekeeping gene transcripts—α-tubulin, pectin methylesterase, peroxidase and catalase, ATPase, and inositol-3-phosphate synthase—in CBs. Additionally, we observed transcripts of the RNA polymerase II subunits RPB2 and RPB10 RNA pol II and the core spliceosome proteins mRNA SmD1, SmD2, and SmE. The co-localization of nascent transcripts and mRNAs indicates that mRNA accumulation/storage, particularly in CBs, occurs in the nucleus of microsporocytes.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00412-011-0339-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 54

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          A human telomerase holoenzyme protein required for Cajal body localization and telomere synthesis.

          Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that synthesizes telomere repeats in tissue progenitor cells and cancer cells. Active human telomerase consists of at least three principal subunits, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase, the telomerase RNA (TERC), and dyskerin. Here, we identify a holoenzyme subunit, TCAB1 (telomerase Cajal body protein 1), that is notably enriched in Cajal bodies, nuclear sites of RNP processing that are important for telomerase function. TCAB1 associates with active telomerase enzyme, established telomerase components, and small Cajal body RNAs that are involved in modifying splicing RNAs. Depletion of TCAB1 by using RNA interference prevents TERC from associating with Cajal bodies, disrupts telomerase-telomere association, and abrogates telomere synthesis by telomerase. Thus, TCAB1 controls telomerase trafficking and is required for telomere synthesis in human cancer cells.
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            Cajal bodies: a long history of discovery.

            This review surveys what is known about the structure and function of the subnuclear domains called Cajal bodies (CBs). The major focus is on CBs in mammalian cells but we provide an overview of homologous CB structures in other organisms. We discuss the protein and RNA components of CBs, including factors recently found to associate in a cell cycle-dependent fashion or under specific metabolic or stress conditions. We also consider the dynamic properties of both CBs and their molecular components, based largely on recent data obtained thanks to the advent of improved in vivo detection and imaging methods. We discuss how these data contribute to an understanding of CB functions and highlight major questions that remain to be answered. Finally, we consider the interesting links that have emerged between CBs and alterations in nuclear structure apparent in a range of human pathologies, including cancer and inherited neurodegenerative diseases. We speculate on the relationship between CB function and molecular disease.
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              A three-dimensional view of precursor messenger RNA metabolism within the mammalian nucleus.

              A quantitative three-dimensional analysis of nuclear components involved in precursor messenger RNA metabolism was performed with a combination of fluorescence hybridization, immunofluorescence, and digital imaging microscopy. Polyadenylate [poly(A)] RNA-rich transcript domains were discrete, internal nuclear regions that formed a ventrally positioned horizontal array in monolayer cells. A dimmer, sometimes strand-like, poly(A) RNA signal was dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm. Spliceosome assembly factor SC-35 localized within the center of individual domains. These data support a nuclear model in which there is a specific topological arrangement of noncontiguous centers involved in precursor messenger RNA metabolism, from which RNA transport toward the nuclear envelope radiates.

                Author and article information

                +48-604-909338 , +48-56-6114772 ,
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                10 September 2011
                10 September 2011
                February 2012
                : 121
                : 1
                : 37-48
                Department of Cell Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
                Author notes

                Communicated by Peter Shaw

                © The Author(s) 2011
                Research Article
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                © Springer-Verlag 2012



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