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      The relationship between oral health and COPD exacerbations

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Poor oral health has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of COPD, but few studies have evaluated the association between oral health and COPD exacerbations. We aimed to determine if poor oral health is associated with COPD exacerbations and/or worse respiratory health.

          Methods: We performed a case-control study of oral health among COPD exacerbators and non-exacerbators. Cases (exacerbators) had experienced ≥1 exacerbation in the previous 12 months, while controls (non-exacerbators) had no exacerbations in the previous 24 months. We excluded those with <4 teeth. We evaluated the global oral health assessment, Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5), dental symptoms/habits, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). In a subset, we performed blinded dental exams to measure bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, periodontitis severity, plaque index, gingival index, and carries risk. We evaluated associations between oral health and COPD exacerbations using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to assess relationships between oral health and SGRQ scores.

          Results: Screened non-exacerbators (n=118) were significantly more likely to have <4 teeth, compared to screened exacerbators (n=100) (44% vs 30%, respectively; p=0.046). After excluding those with <4 teeth, there were 70 cases and 66 controls. Self-reported oral health and objective dental exam measures did not vary significantly between cases vs controls. However, the odds of severe COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalizations and/or emergency department visits trended higher in those with worse dental exam compared to those with better dental exam. Worse OHIP-5 was strongly associated with worse SGRQ scores.

          Conclusions: Oral health status was not related to COPD exacerbations, but was associated with self-reported respiratory health. Non-exacerbators were more likely to be edentate or have ≤4 teeth compared to exacerbators. Larger studies are needed to address oral health as a potential method to improve respiratory health in patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society.

          This guideline is an official statement of the American College of Physicians (ACP), American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS). It represents an update of the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is intended for clinicians who manage patients with COPD. This guideline addresses the value of history and physical examination for predicting airflow obstruction; the value of spirometry for screening or diagnosis of COPD; and COPD management strategies, specifically evaluation of various inhaled therapies (anticholinergics, long-acting β-agonists, and corticosteroids), pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and supplemental oxygen therapy. This guideline is based on a targeted literature update from March 2007 to December 2009 to evaluate the evidence and update the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable COPD. RECOMMENDATION 1: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that spirometry should be obtained to diagnose airflow obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). Spirometry should not be used to screen for airflow obstruction in individuals without respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) between 60% and 80% predicted, ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS suggest that treatment with inhaled bronchodilators may be used (Grade: weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) 50% predicted. (Grade: weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 7: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that clinicians should prescribe continuous oxygen therapy in patients with COPD who have severe resting hypoxemia (Pao(2) ≤55 mm Hg or Spo(2) ≤88%) (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).
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            Reduced plaque formation by the chloromethyl analogue of victamine C.

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              St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID.

              The SGRQ is a disease-specific measure of health status for use in COPD. A number of methods have been used for estimating its minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These include both expert and patient preference-based estimates. Anchor-based methods have also been used. The calculated MCID from those studies was consistently around 4 units, regardless of assessment method. By contrast, the MCID calculated using distribution-based methods varied across studies and permitted no consistent estimate. All measurements of clinical significance contain sample and measurement error. They also require value judgements, if not about the calculation of the MCID itself then about the anchors used to estimate it. Under these circumstances, greater weight should be placed upon the overall body of evidence for an MCID, rather than one single method. For that reason, estimates of MCID should be used as indicative values. Methods of analysing clinical trial results should reflect this, and use appropriate statistical tests for comparison with the MCID. Treatments for COPD that produced an improvement in SGRQ of the order of 4 units in clinical trials have subsequently found wide acceptance once in clinical practice, so it seems reasonable to expect any new treatment proposed for COPD to produce an advantage over placebo that is not significantly inferior to a 4-unit difference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                23 April 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 881-892
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [3 ]TMD, Orofacial Pain, and Dental Sleep Medicine, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [4 ]Dental Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [5 ]Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [6 ]Infectious Disease Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [7 ]Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Arianne K Baldomero Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System , 1 Veterans Drive, Pulmonary (111N), Minneapolis, MN55417, USA Tel +1 612 629 7316 Fax +1 612 467 4039 Email baldo004@ 123456umn.edu
                Article
                194991
                10.2147/COPD.S194991
                6497835
                © 2019 Baldomero et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 7, References: 33, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, oral health, periodontitis

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