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      Molecular mechanisms and biological role of Campylobacter jejuni attachment to host cells

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          Abstract

          Adhesion to host cells is an important step in pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni, which is the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In contrast to other bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella, adherence of C. jejuni is not mediated by fimbria or pili. A number of C. jejuni adhesion-related factors have been described. However, the results obtained by different researchers in different laboratories are often contradictory and inconclusive, with only some of the factors described being confirmed as true adhesins. In this review, we present the current state of studies on the mechanisms of attachment of C. jejuni to host cells.

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          Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

          Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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            Bacterial adhesion and entry into host cells.

            Successful establishment of infection by bacterial pathogens requires adhesion to host cells, colonization of tissues, and in certain cases, cellular invasion-followed by intracellular multiplication, dissemination to other tissues, or persistence. Bacteria use monomeric adhesins/invasins or highly sophisticated macromolecular machines such as type III secretion systems and retractile type IV pili to establish a complex host/pathogen molecular crosstalk that leads to subversion of cellular functions and establishment of disease.
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              Bacterial adhesins in host-microbe interactions.

              Most commensal and pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic hosts express adhesive molecules on their surfaces that promote interaction with host cell receptors or with soluble macromolecules. Even though bacterial attachment to epithelial cells may be beneficial for bacterial colonization, adhesion may come at a cost because bacterial attachment to immune cells can facilitate phagocytosis and clearing. Many pathogenic bacteria have solved this dilemma by producing an antiphagocytic surface layer usually consisting of polysaccharide and by expressing their adhesins on polymeric structures that extend out from the cell surface. In this review, we will focus on the interaction between bacterial adhesins and the host, with an emphasis on pilus-like structures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 March 2012
                : 2
                : 1
                : 32-40
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, KT1 2EE, UK
                Author notes
                [* ] +44 (0)20 8417 7405, +44 (0)20 8417 7497, a.karlyshev@ 123456kingston.ac.uk
                Article
                6
                10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.1.6
                3933988
                24611119
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