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      The multifaceted role of CD146/MCAM in the promotion of melanoma progression

      , , ,

      Cancer Cell International

      BioMed Central

      CD146/MCAM, Melanoma, Structure, Mechanism, Metastasis, Angiogenesis

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          Abstract

          Human malignant melanoma is a common primary malignant cutaneous tumour derived from transformed epidermal melanocytes. Patients with melanoma have a high rate of mortality due to resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, a major obstacle to a successful treatment. Several reports have suggested that CD146 plays an important role as a signalling molecule in human melanoma. This role includes CD146 as a participant in inflammation, differentiation, adhesion, tumourigenicity, metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis among other processes, which suggests that this molecule promotes the progression of human melanoma as a multifaceted regulator. In this article, we explore the effects and corresponding mechanisms with respect to the role of CD146/MUC18 in the promotion of human melanoma progression. Collectively, the studies indicated that targeting CD146, because it is a suitable marker of poor patient outcome, might be useful in the design of future strategies for the prevention and treatment of human melanoma.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Cancer stem cells versus phenotype-switching in melanoma.

          Tumours comprise multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells, some of which are proposed to possess stem cell-like properties, being able to self-renew, seed and maintain tumours, and provide a reservoir of therapeutically resistant cells. Here, we use melanoma as a model to explore the validity of the cancer stem cell hypothesis in the light of accumulating evidence that melanoma progression may instead be driven by phenotype-switching triggered by genetic lesions that impose an increased sensitivity to changes in the tumour microenvironment. Although at any given moment cells within a tumour may exhibit differentiated, proliferative or invasive phenotypes, an ability to switch phenotypes implies that most cells will have the potential to adopt a stem cell-like identity. Insights into the molecular events underpinning phenotype-switching in melanoma highlight the close relationship between signalling pathways that generate, maintain and activate melanocyte stem cells as well as the inverse correlation between proliferation and invasive potentials. An understanding of phenotype-switching in melanoma, and in particular the signalling events that regulate the expression of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Mitf, points to new therapeutic opportunities aimed at eradicating therapeutically resistant stem cell-like melanoma cells.
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            Epidemiology of skin cancer.

            Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in Europe in the next decades.
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              CD146, a multi-functional molecule beyond adhesion.

              CD146 is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that is primarily expressed at the intercellular junction of endothelial cells. CD146 was originally identified as a tumor marker for melanoma (MCAM) due to its existence only in melanoma but not in the corresponding normal counterpart. However CD146 is not just a CAM for the inter-cellular and cell-matrix adhesion. Recent evidence indicates that CD146 is actively involved in miscellaneous processes, such as development, signaling transduction, cell migration, mesenchymal stem cells differentiation, angiogenesis and immune response. CD146 has increasingly become an important molecule, especially identified as a novel bio-marker for angiogenesis and for cancer. Here we have reviewed the dynamic research of CD146, particularly newly identified functions and the underlying mechanisms of CD146. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                LX6990064@126.com
                74298834@qq.com
                74129564@qq.com
                LX6990064@126.com
                Journal
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell International
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2867
                4 February 2015
                4 February 2015
                2015
                : 15
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Linyi People’s Hospital, Linyi, 276000 China
                [ ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Nangang District, Harbin, 150001 China
                [ ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001 China
                Article
                147
                10.1186/s12935-014-0147-z
                4326486
                © Lei et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                angiogenesis, melanoma, structure, mechanism, metastasis, cd146/mcam

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