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      Does Exercise Improve the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile of Patients with Obesity After Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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          RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials

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            Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement

            David Moher and colleagues introduce PRISMA, an update of the QUOROM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses
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              Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis

              The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Obesity represents a major health challenge because it substantially increases the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, dementia, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea and several cancers, thereby contributing to a decline in both quality of life and life expectancy. Obesity is also associated with unemployment, social disadvantages and reduced socio-economic productivity, thus increasingly creating an economic burden. Thus far, obesity prevention and treatment strategies - both at the individual and population level - have not been successful in the long term. Lifestyle and behavioural interventions aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure have limited effectiveness because complex and persistent hormonal, metabolic and neurochemical adaptations defend against weight loss and promote weight regain. Reducing the obesity burden requires approaches that combine individual interventions with changes in the environment and society. Therefore, a better understanding of the remarkable regional differences in obesity prevalence and trends might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance on which are the most promising intervention strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Obesity Surgery
                OBES SURG
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0960-8923
                1708-0428
                June 2022
                March 24 2022
                June 2022
                : 32
                : 6
                : 2056-2068
                Article
                10.1007/s11695-022-06023-x
                35332396
                63a367cf-c34d-4773-af9c-286f5583dfd9
                © 2022

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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