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      Therapeutic potential of BLT1 antagonist for COPD: involvement of inducing autophagy and ameliorating inflammation

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          Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major pro-inflammatory mediator that leads to the persistence of chronic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of BLT1 antagonist for cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD and to explore the underlying mechanism.

          Materials and methods

          In vitro, autophagy proteins were determined by Western blotting in RAW264.7 macrophages treated with U75302 (BLT1 antagonist) or autophagy inhibitor in cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammation. In vivo, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, CS group and CS+U75302 group. After 12-week exposure, histological analysis and lung function tests were performed to evaluate the inflammatory infiltration and emphysema. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was measured by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting detected the expression of autophagy-related proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the alterations of autophagosomes and lysosomes.


          Lower levels of inflammatory factors and autophagy markers were detected in U75302-treated cells and mice after CS exposure than control. In vitro, LC3 mRNA expression was elevated when treated with U75302. Autophagy inhibition resulted in augmented inflammatory response and autophagy proteins even with U75302 treatment. Furthermore, BLT1 antagonist decreased the number of lysosomes and autophagosomes in alveolar macrophages of mice and potentially enhanced the expression of transcriptional activation of transcription factor-EB (TFEB) in vitro and vivo.


          Insufficient autophagy of macrophages was associated with LTB4-mediated inflammation in CS-exposure models. BLT1 antagonist ameliorated inflammatory response through inducing autophagy.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Lipid-cytokine-chemokine cascade drives neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of inflammatory arthritis.

          A large and diverse array of chemoattractants control leukocyte trafficking, but how these apparently redundant signals collaborate in vivo is still largely unknown. We previously demonstrated an absolute requirement for the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) and its receptor BLT1 for neutrophil recruitment into the joint in autoantibody-induced arthritis. We now demonstrate that BLT1 is required for neutrophils to deliver IL-1 into the joint to initiate arthritis. IL-1-expressing neutrophils amplify arthritis through the production of neutrophil-active chemokines from synovial tissue cells. CCR1 and CXCR2, two neutrophil chemokine receptors, operate nonredundantly to sequentially control the later phase of neutrophil recruitment into the joint and mediate all neutrophil chemokine activity in the model. Thus, we have uncovered a complex sequential relationship involving unique contributions from the lipid mediator LTB(4), the cytokine IL-1, and CCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine ligands that are all absolutely required for effective neutrophil recruitment into the joint. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Targeting Nrf2 signaling improves bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages in patients with COPD and in a mouse model.

            Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have innate immune dysfunction in the lung largely due to defective macrophage phagocytosis. This deficiency results in periodic bacterial infections that cause acute exacerbations of COPD, a major source of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate that a decrease in Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid-related factor 2) signaling in patients with COPD may hamper their ability to defend against oxidative stress, although the role of Nrf2 in COPD exacerbations has not been determined. Here, we test whether activation of Nrf2 by the phytochemical sulforaphane restores phagocytosis of clinical isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHI) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) by alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD. Sulforaphane treatment restored bacteria recognition and phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment enhanced pulmonary bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages and reduced inflammation in wild-type mice but not in Nrf2-deficient mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months. Gene expression and promoter analysis revealed that Nrf2 increased phagocytic ability of macrophages by direct transcriptional up-regulation of the scavenger receptor MARCO. Disruption of Nrf2 or MARCO abrogated sulforaphane-mediated bacterial phagocytosis by COPD alveolar macrophages. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Nrf2 and its downstream target MARCO in improving antibacterial defenses and provide a rationale for targeting this pathway, via pharmacological agents such as sulforaphane, to prevent exacerbations of COPD caused by bacterial infection.
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              Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta attenuates allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in murine asthma model.

              P110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a pivotal role in the recruitment and activation of certain inflammatory cells. Recent findings revealed that the activity of p110delta also contributes to allergen-IgE-induced mast cell activation and vascular permeability. We investigated the role of p110delta in allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness using IC87114, a selective p110delta inhibitor, in a mouse asthma model. BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and, upon OVA aerosol challenge, developed airway eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, elevation in cytokine and chemokine levels, up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Intratracheal administration of IC87114 significantly (P<0.05) attenuated OVA-induced influx into lungs of total leukocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, as well as levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and RANTES in a dose-dependent manner. IC87114 also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the serum levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE and LTC(4) release into the airspace. Histological studies show that IC87114 inhibited OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia, airway mucus production, and inflammation score. In addition, IC87114 significantly (P<0.05) suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Western blot analyses of whole lung tissue lysates shows that IC87114 markedly attenuated the OVA-induced increase in expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, and eotaxin. Furthermore, IC87114 treatment markedly attenuated OVA-induced serine phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of PI3K signaling. Taken together, our findings implicate that inhibition of p110delta signaling pathway may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                04 September 2019
                : 13
                : 3105-3116
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Respiratory Disease, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Min ZhouDepartment of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Respiratory Disease, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , No.197 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai200025, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 216 437 0045Fax +86 216 467 4301Email doctor_zhou_99@163.com
                © 2019 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 12
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                blt1 antagonist, copd, autophagy, cigarette smoke, inflammation


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