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      Clinical chorioamnionitis at term VI: acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis according to the presence or absence of microorganisms and inflammation in the amniotic cavity

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          Abstract

          Neonates born to mothers with clinical chorioamnionitis at term are at an increased risk of infection. Acute subchorionitis, chorioamnionitis, and funisitis are considered placental histologic features consistent with acute inflammation according to the Society for Pediatric Pathology. The objectives of this study were to examine the performance of placental histologic features in the identification of: 1) microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation (intra-amniotic infection); and 2) fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS).

          This retrospective cohort study included women with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=45), who underwent an amniocentesis to determine: 1) the presence of microorganisms using both cultivation and molecular biologic techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with broad range primers]; and 2) interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and likelihood ratios) of placental histologic features consistent with acute inflammation was determined for the identification of microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation and FIRS.

          1) The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis was associated with the presence of proven intra-amniotic infection assessed by amniotic fluid analysis; 2) funisitis was also associated with the presence of FIRS; 3) the negative predictive value of acute funisitis ≥stage 2 for the identification of neonates born to mothers with intra-amniotic infection was <50%, and therefore, suboptimal to exclude fetal exposure to bacteria in the amniotic cavity; and 4) acute funisitis ≥stage 2 had a negative predictive value of 86.8% for the identification of FIRS in a population with a prevalence of 20%.

          Acute histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis are associated with intra-amniotic infection and the presence of FIRS. However, current pathologic methods have limitations in the identification of the fetus exposed to microorganisms present in the amniotic cavity. Further studies are thus required to determine whether molecular markers can enhance the performance of placental pathology in the identification of neonates at risk for neonatal sepsis.

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          Most cited references209

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          Neutrophil recruitment and function in health and inflammation.

          Neutrophils have traditionally been thought of as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune system with a restricted set of pro-inflammatory functions. More recently, it has become apparent that neutrophils are, in fact, complex cells capable of a vast array of specialized functions. Although neutrophils are undoubtedly major effectors of acute inflammation, several lines of evidence indicate that they also contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions and adaptive immune responses. Here, we discuss the key features of the life of a neutrophil, from its release from bone marrow to its death. We discuss the possible existence of different neutrophil subsets and their putative anti-inflammatory roles. We focus on how neutrophils are recruited to infected or injured tissues and describe differences in neutrophil recruitment between different tissues. Finally, we explain the mechanisms that are used by neutrophils to promote protective or pathological immune responses at different sites.
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            Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection.

            Neonatal infections are frequent complications of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants receiving intensive care. To determine if neonatal infections in ELBW infants are associated with increased risks of adverse neurodevelopmental and growth sequelae in early childhood. Infants weighing 401 to 1000 g at birth (born in 1993-2001) were enrolled in a prospectively collected very low-birth-weight registry at academic medical centers participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes were assessed at a comprehensive follow-up visit at 18 to 22 months of corrected gestational age and compared by infection group. Eighty percent of survivors completed the follow-up visit and 6093 infants were studied. Registry data were used to classify infants by type of infection: uninfected (n = 2161), clinical infection alone (n = 1538), sepsis (n = 1922), sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 279), or meningitis with or without sepsis (n = 193). Cognitive and neuromotor development, neurologic status, vision and hearing, and growth (weight, length, and head circumference) were assessed at follow-up. The majority of ELBW survivors (65%) had at least 1 infection during their hospitalization after birth. Compared with uninfected infants, those in each of the 4 infection groups were significantly more likely to have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at follow-up, including cerebral palsy (range of significant odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-1.7), low Bayley Scales of Infant Development II scores on the mental development index (ORs, 1.3-1.6) and psychomotor development index (ORs, 1.5-2.4), and vision impairment (ORs, 1.3-2.2). Infection in the neonatal period was also associated with impaired head growth, a known predictor of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. This large cohort study suggests that neonatal infections among ELBW infants are associated with poor neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in early childhood. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of brain injury in infants with infection so that novel interventions to improve these outcomes can be explored.
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              Prevalence and clinical significance of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

              Inflammation and infection play a major role in preterm birth. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the prevalence and clinical significance of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation and (ii) examine the relationship between amniotic fluid (AF) concentrations of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the interval from amniocentesis to delivery in patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation. AF samples obtained from 135 women with preterm labor and intact membranes were analyzed using cultivation techniques as well as broad-range PCR and mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was defined when patients with negative AF cultures and without evidence of microbial footprints had intra-amniotic inflammation (AF interleukin-6 ≥ 2.6 ng/mL). (i) The frequency of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was significantly greater than that of microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation [26% (35/135) versus 11% (15/135); (P = 0.005)], (ii) patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation delivered at comparable gestational ages had similar rates of acute placental inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes as patients with microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, and (iii) patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation and high AF concentrations of HMGB1 (≥8.55 ng/mL) delivered earlier than those with low AF concentrations of HMGB1 (P = 0.02). (i) Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is more frequent than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, and (ii) we propose that danger signals participate in sterile intra-amniotic inflammation in the setting of preterm labor. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Perinatal Medicine
                Walter de Gruyter GmbH
                1619-3997
                0300-5577
                January 1 2015
                January 1 2015
                : 0
                : 0
                Article
                10.1515/jpm-2015-0119
                5625345
                26352071
                63a8a3b8-2b54-4d25-938c-a04158f274eb
                © 2015
                History

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