Background: The effect of anemia correction on kidney function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients remains unclear. As 19-40% of patients with CKD receive an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), this is a potentially important consideration. Summary: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials to January 1, 2014 in adult patients with CKD stages 1 to 4. Selection criteria for studies: randomized controlled trials of at least 2 months duration. Patients were allocated to ESA versus placebo, no treatment, or different ESA doses with the purpose of achieving a higher versus a lower hemoglobin target. The analyzed outcomes were the need for renal replacement therapy, doubling of serum creatinine, change in GFR (ml/min), mortality and withdrawal of treatment due to adverse events. A total of 19 trials (n = 8,129 participants with CKD stage 1-4) were reviewed. There was no difference in the risk of end-stage kidney disease (RR, 0.97 [CI 0.83-1.20], 17 trials, 8,104 participants), change in GFR (Mean Difference [MD] -0.45 [-2.21, 1.31], 9 trials, 1,848 participants) or withdrawal of treatment due to adverse events (RR, 1.18 [CI 0.77-1.81], 10 trials, n = 1,958 participants) for patients at higher hemoglobin (Hb) targets. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences in mortality (Risk Ratio [RR] 1.10 [CI 0.90-1.35], 16 trials, n = 8,082 participants) were observed. Key Messages: There is no evidence that ESA treatment affects renal function in patients with CKD. Use of these agents should not therefore be influenced by considerations about influencing CKD progression.