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      Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

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          Abstract

          Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS), recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

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          Most cited references42

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          Cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials.

          The cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials was studied as a function of their aspect ratio and surface chemistry. These structures were multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanoparticles. Their toxicity was tested in vitro on lung tumor cells. Our work clearly indicated that these materials are toxic while the hazardous effect is size-dependent. Moreover, cytotoxicity is enhanced when the surface of the particles is functionalized after an acid treatment.
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            Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging.

            Nanotechnology, a multidisciplinary scientific undertaking, involves creation and utilization of materials, devices or systems on the nanometer scale. The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to create innovations and play a critical role in various biomedical applications, not only in drug delivery, but also in molecular imaging, biomarkers and biosensors. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas where nanotechnology would play a vital role. This review considers different nanotechnology-based drug delivery and imaging approaches, and their economic impact on pharmaceutical and biomedical industries.
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              Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

              Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known in the UK as motor neuron disease) is a devastating illness with uncertain pathogenesis. In this Seminar, we review its natural history, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, variant and mimic syndromes, genetic forms, and epidemiology. Several hypotheses about causes of the disorder are discussed, such as excitotoxicity and oxidant stress, and we review past and present putative disease-modifying treatments. Disease-management strategies, from telling the patient about their illness to end-of-life decisions and palliative care, are presented. We review options for control of the main symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--including dysphagia, dysarthria, respiratory distress, pain, and psychological disorders--and care in the terminal phase. The need for good psychosocial and spiritual care of patients and families is emphasised. We conclude with an overview of some current major issues and future prospects, ranging from the search for disease markers to challenging developments such as stem-cell and gene therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Indian Acad Neurol
                Ann Indian Acad Neurol
                AIAN
                Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0972-2327
                1998-3549
                Oct-Dec 2015
                : 18
                : 4
                : 382-386
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Internal Medicine, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA
                Author notes
                For correspondence: Dr. Paurush Ambesh, Department of Internal Medicine, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad - 211 001, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: paurush17@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                AIAN-18-382
                10.4103/0972-2327.169535
                4683873
                63bd243a-f0ae-4298-916f-4fd38e60fa56
                Copyright: © Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Neurology
                amphiphile,nanomedicine,nanotechnology,neurology
                Neurology
                amphiphile, nanomedicine, nanotechnology, neurology

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