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      Childhood obesity, cardiovascular and liver health: a growing epidemic with age

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          Abstract

          Background

          The frequency of childhood obesity has increased over the last 3 decades, and the trend constitutes a worrisome epidemic worldwide. With the raising obesity risk, key aspects to consider are accurate body mass index classification, as well as metabolic and cardiovascular, and hepatic consequences.

          Data sources

          The authors performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE, using selected key words (obesity, childhood, cardiovascular, liver health). In particular, they focused their search on papers evaluating the impact of obesity on cardiovascular and liver health.

          Results

          We evaluated the current literature dealing with the impact of excessive body fat accumulation in childhood and across adulthood, as a predisposing factor to cardiovascular and hepatic alterations. We also evaluated the impact of physical and dietary behaviors starting from childhood on cardio-metabolic consequences.

          Conclusions

          The epidemic of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities worldwide raises concerns about the impact of early abnormalities during childhood and adolescence. Two key abnormalities in this context include cardiovascular diseases, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Appropriate metabolic screenings and associated comorbidities should start as early as possible in obese children and adolescents. Nevertheless, improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity performance are to date the best therapeutic tools in children to weaken the onset of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes risk during adulthood.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: pathology and pathogenesis.

            Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the leading cause of chronic liver disease in adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of liver injuries ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis and complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. Histologic findings represent the complexity of pathophysiology. NAFLD is closely associated with obesity and is most closely linked with insulin resistance; the current Western diet, high in saturated fats and fructose, plays a significant role. There are several mechanisms by which excess triglycerides are acquired and accumulate in hepatocytes. Formation of steatotic droplets may be disordered in NAFLD. Visceral adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance results in aberrant cytokine expression; many cytokines have a role in liver injury in NAFLD. Cellular stress and immune reactions, as well as the endocannabinoid system, have been implicated in animal models and in some human studies.
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              Obesity at the age of 50 y in men and women exposed to famine prenatally.

              It was shown that men who were conceived during the Dutch famine of 1944-1945 had higher rates of obesity at age 19 y than those conceived before or after it. Our objective was to study the effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on obesity in women and men at age 50 y. We measured the body size of 741 people born at term between November 1943 and February 1947 in Amsterdam. We compared people exposed to famine in late, mid, or early gestation (exposed participants) with those born before or conceived after the famine period (nonexposed participants). The body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 50-y-old women exposed to famine in early gestation was significantly higher by 7. 4% (95% CI: 0.7%, 14.5%) than that of nonexposed women. BMI did not differ significantly in women exposed in mid gestation (-2.1%; -7.0%, 3.1%) or in late gestation (-1.3%; -6.3%, 3.9%). In 50-y-old men, BMI was not significantly affected by exposure to famine during any stage of gestation: BMI differed by 0.4% (-3.5%, 4.5%) in men exposed to famine in late gestation, by -1.2% (-5.5%, 3.3%) in those exposed in mid gestation, and by 0.5% (-4.6%, 6.0%) in those exposed in early gestation compared with nonexposed men. Maternal malnutrition during early gestation was associated with higher BMI and waist circumference in 50-y-old women but not in men. These findings suggest that pertubations of central endocrine regulatory systems established in early gestation may contribute to the development of abdominal obesity in later life.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mariafelicia.faienza@uniba.it
                Journal
                World J Pediatr
                World J Pediatr
                World Journal of Pediatrics
                Springer Singapore (Singapore )
                1708-8569
                1867-0687
                4 February 2020
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.7644.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0120 3326, Section of Pediatrics, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, , University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, ; Bari, Italy
                [2 ]GRID grid.7644.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0120 3326, Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, , University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, ; Bari, Italy
                [3 ]GRID grid.411937.9, Department of Medicine II, , Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, ; Homburg, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.13339.3b, ISNI 0000000113287408, Laboratory of Metabolic Liver Diseases, Center for Preclinical Research, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, , Medical University of Warsaw, ; Warsaw, Poland
                [5 ]Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, Italy
                Article
                341
                10.1007/s12519-020-00341-9
                7224053
                32020441
                © Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funding
                Funded by: 722619
                Award ID: Fois Gras
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review Article

                cardiovascular, childhood, liver health, obesity

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