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      Assessing skeletal muscle mass: historical overview and state of the art

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          Abstract

          Background

          Even though skeletal muscle (SM) is the largest body compartment in most adults and a key phenotypic marker of sarcopenia and cachexia, SM mass was until recently difficult and often impractical to quantify in vivo. This review traces the historical development of SM mass measurement methods and their evolution to advances that now promise to provide in-depth noninvasive measures of SM composition.

          Methods

          Key steps in the advancement of SM measurement methods and their application were obtained from historical records and widely cited publications over the past two centuries. Recent advances were established by collecting information on notable studies presented at scientific meetings and their related publications.

          Results

          The year 1835 marks the discovery of creatine in meat by Chevreul, a finding that still resonates today in the D 3-creatine method of measuring SM mass. Matiegka introduced an anthropometric approach for estimating SM mass in 1921 with the vision of creating a human “capacity” marker. The 1940s saw technological advances eventually leading up to the development of ultrasound and bioimpedance analysis methods of quantifying SM mass in vivo. Continuing to seek an elusive SM mass “reference” method, Burkinshaw and Cohn introduced the whole-body counting-neutron activation analysis method and provided some of the first detailed reports of cancer cachexia in the late 1970s. Three transformative breakthroughs leading to the current SM mass reference methods appeared in the 1970s and early 1980s as follows: the introduction of computed tomography (CT), photon absorptiometry, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Each is advanced as an accurate and/or practical approach to quantifying whole-body and regional SM mass across the lifespan. These advances have led to a new understanding of fundamental body size-SM mass relationships that are now widely applied in the evaluation and monitoring of patients with sarcopenia and cachexia. An intermediate link between SM mass and function is SM composition. Advances in water-fat MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, MR elastography, imaging of connective tissue structures by ultra-short echo time MR, and other new MR approaches promise to close the gap that now exists between SM anatomy and function.

          Conclusions

          The global efforts of scientists over the past two centuries provides us with highly accurate means by which to measure SM mass across the lifespan with new advances promising to extend these efforts to noninvasive methods for quantifying SM composition.

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          Most cited references 94

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          Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico.

          Muscle mass decreases with age, leading to "sarcopenia," or low relative muscle mass, in elderly people. Sarcopenia is believed to be associated with metabolic, physiologic, and functional impairments and disability. Methods of estimating the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated risks in elderly populations are lacking. Data from a population-based survey of 883 elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men and women living in New Mexico (the New Mexico Elder Health Survey, 1993-1995) were analyzed to develop a method for estimating the prevalence of sarcopenia. An anthropometric equation for predicting appendicular skeletal muscle mass was developed from a random subsample (n = 199) of participants and was extended to the total sample. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass (kg)/height2 (m2) being less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Prevalences increased from 13-24% in persons under 70 years of age to >50% in persons over 80 years of age, and were slightly greater in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic whites. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with self-reported physical disability in both men and women, independent of ethnicity, age, morbidity, obesity, income, and health behaviors. This study provides some of the first estimates of the extent of the public health problem posed by sarcopenia.
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            Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography). 1. Description of system.

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              Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples Employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

               P Lauterbur (1973)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +1-225-7632513 , +1-225-7630935 , Steven.Heymsfield@pbrc.edu
                Journal
                J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
                J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
                Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                2190-5991
                2190-6009
                15 February 2014
                March 2014
                : 5
                : 1
                : 9-18
                Affiliations
                [ ]Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA
                [ ]Post-graduation Program in Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Brazil
                [ ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA USA
                [ ]Department of Mathematics, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ USA
                130
                10.1007/s13539-014-0130-5
                3953319
                24532493
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

                Orthopedics

                cachexia, body composition, nutritional assessment, sarcopenia

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