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      Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

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          Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates.


          A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons.


          The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study.


          Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Oral Manifestations in HIV/AIDS-Infected Children

          Objectives: To assess factors influencing the distribution of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS-infected children attending the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic in Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprising 237 children (males/females: 113/124) aged 1 to 12 years. The parents/guardians were interviewed to obtain demographic information, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and health seeking behaviours as well as any medications taken. The children were clinically examined for oral lesions based on World Health Organization criteria with modifications. Results: About 71.7% of the children cleaned their teeth. About 16.9% of the children had visited a dentist since birth, mainly for emergency care. One or more oral lesions were recorded in 73% of the children of whom 19.0% experienced discomfort during oral functions. Cervical lymphadenopathy, oral candidiasis and gingivitis were the most common soft tissue oral lesions: 60.8%, 28.3% and 19.0%, respectively. Except for dental caries, the overall frequency distribution of soft tissue oral lesions was significantly lower in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as compared to their counterparts not on HAART. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous and permanent dentitions was 42.2% and 11.0%, respectively. Tooth brushing and previous visits to the dentist were indirectly and significantly associated with dental caries. About 5.9% (n=14) of the children had <200 CD3 + CD4 T-lymphocyte cells per μl of blood. Conclusions: The majority of the children had one or more oral lesions, particularly in the group not on HAART. Some of the lesions were associated with discomfort during oral functions.
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            Oral manifestations in 45 HIV-positive children from Northern Thailand.

            Forty-five Northern Thai children with HIV infection or AIDS were examined for oral manifestations. Of these children, 51.1% (n=23) were asymptomatic (category N), 48.9% were mildly, moderately or severely symptomatic (category A, B, C) and 48.9% (n=22) revealed oral lesions. Eleven patients (24.4%) showed one oral lesion, eight (17.8%) had two and three (6.6%) had three oral lesions. Erythematous candidiasis was the most common lesion (17.8%). Oral hairy leukoplakia was seen in 6.7% (n=3). Geographic tongue, not usually considered to be associated with HIV infection, was seen in 6.7% (n=3). Only 15 patients (33.3%) received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Comparison of patients with or without ART did not show differences in the prevalence of oral lesions. More studies in Thai HIV-infected children are needed to reveal the prevalence of oral manifestations, as well as for the predictive value of the most common or specific oral manifestations.
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              Orofacial manifestations in HIV positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda


                Author and article information

                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                24 March 2015
                : 20
                [1 ]Department of Paediatrics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
                [2 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University college Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
                [3 ]Department of Oral Pathology, University college Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Olusola Adetunji Oyedeji, Department of Paediatrics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
                © Olusola Adetunji Oyedeji et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



                disease and hiv, oral, paediatric


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