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      Is Open Access

      Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017

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      Nature

      Nature Publishing Group UK

      Paediatrics, Public health, Developing world

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          Abstract

          Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000–2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.

          Abstract

          A high-resolution, global atlas of mortality of children under five years of age between 2000 and 2017 highlights subnational geographical inequalities in the distribution, rates and absolute counts of child deaths by age.

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          Most cited references 40

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save?

          In this second article of the neonatal survival series, we identify 16 interventions with proven efficacy (implementation under ideal conditions) for neonatal survival and combine them into packages for scaling up in health systems, according to three service delivery modes (outreach, family-community, and facility-based clinical care). All the packages of care are cost effective compared with single interventions. Universal (99%) coverage of these interventions could avert an estimated 41-72% of neonatal deaths worldwide. At 90% coverage, intrapartum and postnatal packages have similar effects on neonatal mortality--two-fold to three-fold greater than that of antenatal care. However, running costs are two-fold higher for intrapartum than for postnatal care. A combination of universal--ie, for all settings--outreach and family-community care at 90% coverage averts 18-37% of neonatal deaths. Most of this benefit is derived from family-community care, and greater effect is seen in settings with very high neonatal mortality. Reductions in neonatal mortality that exceed 50% can be achieved with an integrated, high-coverage programme of universal outreach and family-community care, consisting of 12% and 26%, respectively, of total running costs, plus universal facility-based clinical services, which make up 62% of the total cost. Early success in averting neonatal deaths is possible in settings with high mortality and weak health systems through outreach and family-community care, including health education to improve home-care practices, to create demand for skilled care, and to improve care seeking. Simultaneous expansion of clinical care for babies and mothers is essential to achieve the reduction in neonatal deaths needed to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child survival.
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            Discrete-Time Methods for the Analysis of Event Histories

             Paul Allison (1982)
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              New momentum for civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) is building, driven by the confluence of growing demands for accountability and results in health, improved equity, and rights-based approaches to development challenges, and by the immense potential of innovation and new technologies to accelerate CRVS improvement. Examples of country successes in strengthening of hitherto weak systems are emerging. The key to success has been to build collaborative partnerships involving local ownership by several sectors that span registration, justice, health, statistics, and civil society. Regional partners can be important to raise awareness, set regional goals and targets, foster country-to-country exchange and mutual learning, and build high-level political commitment. These regional partners continue to provide a platform through which country stakeholders, development partners, and technical experts can share experiences, develop and document good practices, and propose innovative approaches to tackle CRVS challenges. This country and regional momentum would benefit from global leadership, commitment, and support.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sihay@uw.edu
                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                16 October 2019
                16 October 2019
                2019
                : 574
                : 7778
                : 353-358
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Department of Nutrition, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 9286, GRID grid.7776.1, Department of Neurology, , Cairo University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0612 0898, GRID grid.444764.1, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, , Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, ; Jahrom, Iran
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1218 604X, GRID grid.468130.8, Department of Epidemiology, , Arak University of Medical Sciences, ; Arak, Iran
                [9 ]GRID grid.415696.9, Department of Public Health, , Ministry of Health, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [10 ]Research Department, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Quezon City, The Philippines
                [11 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0671 5021, GRID grid.255168.d, Department of Preventive Medicine, , Dongguk University, ; Gyeongju, South Korea
                [12 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0680 7778, GRID grid.429382.6, Department of Community Medicine, , Kathmandu University, ; Devdaha, Nepal
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 5403, GRID grid.412438.8, College of Medicine, , University College Hospital, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [14 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0807 5670, GRID grid.5600.3, School of Medicine, , Cardiff University, ; Cardiff, UK
                [15 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 7226, GRID grid.411426.4, School of Health, , Ardabil University of Medical Science, ; Ardabil, Iran
                [16 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0384 898X, GRID grid.444944.d, Department of Community Medicine, , Zabol University of Medical Sciences, ; Zabol, Iran
                [17 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0384 871X, GRID grid.444830.f, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Qom University of Medical Sciences, ; Qom, Iran
                [18 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0420 4262, GRID grid.36511.30, School of Pharmacy, , University of Lincoln, ; Lincoln, UK
                [19 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9296 6873, GRID grid.411230.5, Environmental Technologies Research Center, , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, ; Ahvaz, Iran
                [20 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [21 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0746 8691, GRID grid.52681.38, James P. Grant School of Public Health, , Brac University, ; Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [22 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0600 7174, GRID grid.414142.6, Health Systems and Population Studies Division, , International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, ; Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [23 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0439 5951, GRID grid.442845.b, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, , Bahir Dar University, ; Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [24 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [25 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Evidence Based Practice Center, , Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [26 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0380 0804, GRID grid.415606.0, Prevention Division, , Queensland Health, ; Herston, Queensland Australia
                [27 ]School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
                [28 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, GRID grid.59547.3a, Institute of Public Health, , University of Gondar, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                [29 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 7477, GRID grid.1001.0, Research School of Population Health, , Australian National University, ; Canberra, Australian Capital Territory Australia
                [30 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0405 433X, GRID grid.412606.7, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, ; Qazvin, Iran
                [31 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0442 8645, GRID grid.412763.5, Department of Health Care Management and Economics, , Urmia University of Medical Science, ; Urmia, Iran
                [32 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Health Economics Department, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [33 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Health Management and Economics Research Center, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [34 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1240 3921, GRID grid.411196.a, Department of Health Policy and Management, , Kuwait University, ; Safat, Kuwait
                [35 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1557, GRID grid.412113.4, International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, , National University of Malaysia, ; Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia
                [36 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0398 1027, GRID grid.411831.e, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, , Jazan University, ; Jazan, Saudi Arabia
                [37 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0398 1027, GRID grid.411831.e, Jazan University, ; Jazan, Saudi Arabia
                [38 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0398 1027, GRID grid.411831.e, Medical Research Center, , Jazan University, ; Jazan, Saudi Arabia
                [39 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2299 4112, GRID grid.412413.1, Department of Medical Parasitology, , Sana’a University, ; Sana’a, Yemen
                [40 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, GRID grid.56302.32, King Saud University, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [41 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0486 624X, GRID grid.412885.2, Research Group in Health Economics, , Universidad de Cartagena, ; Cartagena, Colombia
                [42 ]GRID grid.441867.8, Research Group in Hospital Management and Health Policies, , Universidad de la Costa, ; Barranquilla, Colombia
                [43 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 8567, GRID grid.413081.f, Biomedical Science, , University of Cape Coast, ; Cape Coast, Ghana
                [44 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1218 604X, GRID grid.468130.8, Health Services Management Department, , Arak University of Medical Sciences, ; Arak, Iran
                [45 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9650 2179, GRID grid.11159.3d, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , University of the Philippines Manila, ; Manila, The Philippines
                [46 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Online Programs for Applied Learning, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [47 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0035 6670, GRID grid.410558.d, Department of Medicine, , University of Thessaly, ; Volos, Greece
                [48 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0405 6183, GRID grid.412653.7, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, ; Rafsanjan, Iran
                [49 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Research Center for Evidence Based Medicine-Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [50 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9650 2179, GRID grid.11159.3d, Department of Health Policy and Administration, , University of the Philippines Manila, ; Manila, The Philippines
                [51 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 6123, GRID grid.16890.36, Department of Applied Social Sciences, , Hong Kong Polytechnic University, ; Hong Kong, China
                [52 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Health Promotion and Education, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [53 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 2449, GRID grid.19822.30, School of Health Sciences, , Birmingham City University, ; Birmingham, UK
                [54 ]School of Nursing and Midwifery, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran
                [55 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran
                [56 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9939 5719, GRID grid.1029.a, School of Science and Health, , Western Sydney University, ; Penrith, New South Wales Australia
                [57 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2105 7653, GRID grid.410692.8, Oral Health Services, , Sydney Local Health District, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [58 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9609, GRID grid.21613.37, Department of Community Health Sciences, , University of Manitoba, ; Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada
                [59 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [60 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [61 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Faculty of Medicine, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [62 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2198 6209, GRID grid.411583.a, Education Development Center, , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, ; Mashhad, Iran
                [63 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [64 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Center for Clinical Global Health Education, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [65 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 8110, GRID grid.464654.1, Dr D. Y. Patil Medical College, ; Pune, India
                [66 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2342 0938, GRID grid.1018.8, The Judith Lumley Centre, , La Trobe University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [67 ]General Office for Research and Technological Transfer, Peruvian National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru
                [68 ]GRID grid.449729.5, Department of Family and Community Health, , University of Health and Allied Sciences, ; Ho, Ghana
                [69 ]Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Babol, Iran
                [70 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0805 4386, GRID grid.415368.d, Public Health Risk Sciences Division, , Public Health Agency of Canada, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [71 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Nutritional Sciences, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [72 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 9747, GRID grid.412553.4, Department of Chemistry, , Sharif University of Technology, ; Tehran, Iran
                [73 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1781 3962, GRID grid.412266.5, Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences Division, , Tarbiat Modares University, ; Tehran, Iran
                [74 ]Division of Diseases, Advanced Technologies Research Group, Tehran, Iran
                [75 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, School of Nursing and Midwifery, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [76 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8743 1110, GRID grid.418577.8, Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, , Clinical Center of Serbia, ; Belgrade, Serbia
                [77 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2166 9385, GRID grid.7149.b, Faculty of Medicine, , University of Belgrade, ; Belgrade, Serbia
                [78 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Barcelona Institute for Global Health, , University of Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [79 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9601 989X, GRID grid.425902.8, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [80 ]Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [81 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Health Human Resources Research Center, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [82 ]GRID grid.415285.f, Department of Community Medicine, , Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, ; Bhopal, India
                [83 ]ISNI 0000000106678902, GRID grid.4527.4, Department of Neuroscience, , Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, ; Milan, Italy
                [84 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 0173, GRID grid.411406.6, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, ; Khorramabad, Iran
                [85 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 0173, GRID grid.411406.6, Hepatitis Research Center, , Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, ; Khorramabad, Iran
                [86 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, Pharmacoepidemiology and Social Pharmacy, , Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [87 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [88 ]GRID grid.442844.a, Department of Public Health, , Arba Minch University, ; Arba Minch, Ethiopia
                [89 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, GRID grid.189967.8, Hubert Department of Global Health, , Emory University, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [90 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2353 285X, GRID grid.170693.a, Department of Global Health, , University of South Florida, ; Tampa, FL USA
                [91 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0425 469X, GRID grid.8991.9, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, ; London, UK
                [92 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0430 5416, GRID grid.473455.4, Nepal Academy of Science & Technology, ; Patan, Nepal
                [93 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, The Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [94 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0633 6224, GRID grid.7147.5, Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, , Aga Khan University, ; Karachi, Pakistan
                [95 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [96 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 1701, GRID grid.411769.c, Department of Veterinary Medicine, , Karaj Islamic Azad University, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [97 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, Department of Psychology, , Ohio State University, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [98 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, Psychiatry and Behavioral Health Department, , Ohio State University, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [99 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1800 2151, GRID grid.452535.0, Neuroscience Department, , Institute for Scientific Research and High Technology Services, ; City of Knowledge, Panama
                [100 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8505 1122, GRID grid.419049.1, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, ; Panama, Panama
                [101 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [102 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1783 8221, GRID grid.459487.3, Department of Community Medicine, , Employees’ State Insurance Model Hospital, ; Bangalore, India
                [103 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 8254, GRID grid.6734.6, Department for Health Care Management, , Technical University of Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [104 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, School of Population and Public Health, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [105 ]Al Shifa School of Public Health, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
                [106 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2224 0361, GRID grid.59025.3b, Centre for Population Health Sciences, , Nanyang Technological University, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [107 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Global Ehealth Unit, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [108 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 0393, GRID grid.7220.7, Department of Population and Health, , Metropolitan Autonomous University, ; Mexico City, Mexico
                [109 ]Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
                [110 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0286 3748, GRID grid.10689.36, Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, , National University of Colombia, ; Bogota, Colombia
                [111 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2194 1270, GRID grid.411958.0, Mary Mackillop Institute for Health Research, , Australian Catholic University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [112 ]ISNI 0000000121742757, GRID grid.194645.b, School of Public Health, , University of Hong Kong, ; Hong Kong, China
                [113 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, GRID grid.59547.3a, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, , University of Gondar, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                [114 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0507 4551, GRID grid.419566.9, Division of Epidemiology, , National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, ; Kolkata, India
                [115 ]GRID grid.440774.4, Faculty of Biology, , Hanoi National University of Education, ; Hanoi, Vietnam
                [116 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Department of Rheumatology, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [117 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9297, GRID grid.5491.9, Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, , University of Southampton, ; Southampton, UK
                [118 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1503 7226, GRID grid.5808.5, Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit (UCIBIO), , University of Porto, ; Porto, Portugal
                [119 ]Institute of Public Health Kalyani, Kalyani, India
                [120 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0738 8966, GRID grid.15895.30, School of Health Science, , Orebro University, ; Orebro, Sweden
                [121 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 0198, GRID grid.415361.4, Public Health Foundation of India, ; Gurugram, India
                [122 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Toxoplasmosis Research Center, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [123 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9828 7548, GRID grid.8194.4, Department of General Surgery, , Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [124 ]Department of Surgery, Clinical Emergency Hospital St Pantelimon, Bucharest, Romania
                [125 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), , Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [126 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0439 5951, GRID grid.442845.b, Bahir Dar University, ; Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [127 ]GRID grid.448640.a, School of Pharmacy, , Aksum University, ; Aksum, Ethiopia
                [128 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [129 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, School of Public Health, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [130 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8853 076X, GRID grid.414601.6, Department of Global Health and Infection, , Brighton and Sussex Medical School, ; Brighton, UK
                [131 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0419 4084, GRID grid.414026.5, Division of Cardiology, , Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, ; Decatur, GA USA
                [132 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0439 5951, GRID grid.442845.b, Public Health Nutrition, , Bahir Dar University, ; Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [133 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0558 8755, GRID grid.417967.a, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, , Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, ; New Delhi, India
                [134 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9816 8637, GRID grid.11139.3b, Department of Community Medicine, , University of Peradeniya, ; Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
                [135 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8639 0425, GRID grid.452693.f, Health Research Section, , Nepal Health Research Council, ; Kathmandu, Nepal
                [136 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2159 0001, GRID grid.9486.3, Center of Complexity Sciences, , National Autonomous University of Mexico, ; Mexico City, Mexico
                [137 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2192 9271, GRID grid.412863.a, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, , Autonomous University of Sinaloa, ; Culiacan Rosales, Mexico
                [138 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Department of Health Policy and Economy, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [139 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, School of Medicine, , Federal University of Bahia, ; Salvador, Brazil
                [140 ]Diretoria Médica, Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil
                [141 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [142 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6812, GRID grid.484406.a, Environmental Health Research Center, , Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, ; Sanandaj, Iran
                [143 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8831 109X, GRID grid.266842.c, Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , University of Newcastle, ; Newcastle, New South Wales Australia
                [144 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [145 ]GRID grid.449862.5, Department of Basic Sciences, , Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, ; Maragheh, Iran
                [146 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, National Institute for Health Researchers, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [147 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2260 6941, GRID grid.7155.6, Medical Research Institute, , Alexandria University, ; Alexandria, Egypt
                [148 ]ISNI 0000000103426662, GRID grid.10251.37, Department of Clinical Pathology, , Mansoura University, ; Mansoura, Egypt
                [149 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2260 6941, GRID grid.7155.6, Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, , Alexandria University, ; Alexandria, Egypt
                [150 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0607 035X, GRID grid.411975.f, Preventive Dental Sciences, , Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, ; Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [151 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Public Health Sciences, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [152 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0384 8816, GRID grid.444858.1, Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, , Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, ; Shahroud, Iran
                [153 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9889 5690, GRID grid.33003.33, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, , Suez Canal University, ; Ismailia, Egypt
                [154 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8589 2327, GRID grid.416553.0, Epidemiology and Population Health, , British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [155 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7494, GRID grid.61971.38, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Simon Fraser University, ; Burnaby, British Columbia Canada
                [156 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [157 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2243 1790, GRID grid.440750.2, College of Medicine, , Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [158 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Department of Parasitology, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [159 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 6801, GRID grid.411252.1, Department of Psychology, , Federal University of Sergipe, ; Sao Cristovao, Brazil
                [160 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9280, GRID grid.411950.8, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, ; Hamadan, Iran
                [161 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Environmental Health Engineering, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [162 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 7226, GRID grid.411426.4, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, , Ardabil University of Medical Science, ; Ardabil, Iran
                [163 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0439 5951, GRID grid.442845.b, Department of Public Health Nutrition, , Bahir Dar University, ; Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [164 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Neurobiology, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [165 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2182 2255, GRID grid.28046.38, Division of Neurology, , University of Ottawa, ; Ottawa, Ontario Canada
                [166 ]ISNI 000000010410653X, GRID grid.7831.d, Center for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry, , Catholic University of Portugal, ; Porto, Portugal
                [167 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9957 7758, GRID grid.280062.e, Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, ; Fontana, CA USA
                [168 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 094X, GRID grid.251612.3, Department of Health Sciences, , A.T. Still University, ; Mesa, AZ USA
                [169 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0944 9128, GRID grid.7491.b, Department of Public Health Medicine, , Bielefeld University, ; Bielefeld, Germany
                [170 ]GRID grid.419973.1, Institute of Gerontology, , National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, ; Kyiv, Ukraine
                [171 ]Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran
                [172 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1135, GRID grid.11951.3d, Clinical Medicine and Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, , University of the Witwatersrand, ; Johannesburg, South Africa
                [173 ]Gene Expression & Regulation Program, Cancer Institute (W.I.A.), Philadelphia, PA USA
                [174 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 3077, GRID grid.31432.37, Department of Dermatology, , Kobe University, ; Kobe, Japan
                [175 ]ISNI 0000000106678902, GRID grid.4527.4, Department of Environmental Health Science, , Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, ; Milan, Italy
                [176 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [177 ]Dr Tewelde Legesse Health Sciences College, Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [178 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2034 9160, GRID grid.411903.e, Department of Epidemiology, , Jimma University, ; Jimma, Ethiopia
                [179 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, School of Nursing, , Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [180 ]GRID grid.448640.a, Nursing Department, , Aksum University, ; Aksum, Ethiopia
                [181 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8800 7493, GRID grid.410513.2, Vaccines Department, , Pfizer, ; Collegeville, PA USA
                [182 ]Agency of Preventive Medicine, Paris, France
                [183 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0515 5212, GRID grid.467130.7, Department of Pharmacy, , Wollo University, ; Dessie, Ethiopia
                [184 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Health Research Institute, , Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [185 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Neurology, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [186 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Department of Health Services Management, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [187 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8809 1613, GRID grid.7372.1, Unit of Academic Primary Care, , University of Warwick, ; Coventry, UK
                [188 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7304, GRID grid.1010.0, Adelaide Medical School, , University of Adelaide, ; Adelaide, South Australia Australia
                [189 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1503 7226, GRID grid.5808.5, Department of Chemistry, , University of Porto, ; Porto, Portugal
                [190 ]REQUIMTE/LAQV, Porto, Portugal
                [191 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 3207, GRID grid.266685.9, Nursing and Health Sciences Department, , University of Massachusetts Boston, ; Boston, MA USA
                [192 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0447 0018, GRID grid.266900.b, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, , University of Oklahoma, ; Oklahoma City, OK USA
                [193 ]Department of Health and Social Affairs, Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia
                [194 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9324 4864, GRID grid.429138.5, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section, , Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, ; Florence, Italy
                [195 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2200 7498, GRID grid.8532.c, Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, , Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, ; Porto Alegre, Brazil
                [196 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [197 ]ISNI 0000 0004 5909 016X, GRID grid.271308.f, Health Improvement Directorate, , Public Health England, ; London, UK
                [198 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0562, GRID grid.18098.38, School of Public Health, , University of Haifa, ; Haifa, Israel
                [199 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7857, GRID grid.1002.3, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, , Monash University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [200 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2189 3846, GRID grid.207374.5, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Zhengzhou University, ; Zhengzhou, China
                [201 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Pharmacology, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [202 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [203 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Radiology, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [204 ]Global and Community Mental Health Research Group, University of Macau, Macao, China
                [205 ]GRID grid.444522.1, School of Health and Environmental Studies, , Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, ; Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                [206 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [207 ]GRID grid.469673.9, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), ; Madrid, Spain
                [208 ]Research and Development Unit, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi De Llobregat, Spain
                [209 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [210 ]GRID grid.449862.5, Healthcare Management, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, ; Maragheh, Iran
                [211 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Microbiology, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [212 ]GRID grid.449862.5, Department of Microbiology, , Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, ; Maragheh, Iran
                [213 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, School of Nursing and Midwifery Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [214 ]Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran
                [215 ]GRID grid.449142.e, Public Health Department, , Mizan-Tepi University, ; Teppi, Ethiopia
                [216 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 3418, GRID grid.411414.5, Unit of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, , University Hospital Antwerp, ; Antwerp, Belgium
                [217 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0375 4078, GRID grid.1032.0, School of Public Health, , Curtin University, ; Bentley, Western Australia Australia
                [218 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Medical Biology Research Center, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [219 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9760 5620, GRID grid.1051.5, Population Health, , Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [220 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4659 3737, GRID grid.473736.2, Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, , Nguyen Tat Thanh University, ; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
                [221 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0571 1549, GRID grid.411874.f, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, , Guilan University of Medical Sciences, ; Rasht, Iran
                [222 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0571 1549, GRID grid.411874.f, Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, , Guilan University of Medical Sciences, ; Rasht, Iran
                [223 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [224 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1498 6059, GRID grid.8198.8, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, , University of Dhaka, ; Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [225 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [226 ]GRID grid.472438.e, Computer Science Department, , University of Human Development, ; Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
                [227 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
                [228 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9828 7548, GRID grid.8194.4, Faculty of Dentistry, , Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [229 ]Clinical Legal Medicine, National Institute of Legal Medicine Mina Minovici, Bucharest, Romania
                [230 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1789 3191, GRID grid.452146.0, Division of Information and Computing Technology, , Hamad Bin Khalifa University, ; Doha, Qatar
                [231 ]Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, Doha, Qatar
                [232 ]Faculty of Medicine Tunis, Medicine School of Tunis, Baab Saadoun, Tunisia
                [233 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Department of Community Medicine, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [234 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 0173, GRID grid.411406.6, Department of Public Health, , Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, ; Khorramabad, Iran
                [235 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9337 0481, GRID grid.412896.0, Global Health and Development Department, , Taipei Medical University, ; Taipei City, Taiwan
                [236 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [237 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, MRC Epidemiology Unit, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [238 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Harvard University, ; Boston, MA USA
                [239 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0526 7079, GRID grid.1021.2, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, , Deakin University, ; Burwood, Victoria Australia
                [240 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Sydney Medical School, , University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [241 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0943 7661, GRID grid.10939.32, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, , University of Tartu, ; Tartu, Estonia
                [242 ]Psychosis Department, Babol Nushirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
                [243 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Psychiatric Department, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [244 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Department of Medical Mycology, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [245 ]ISNI 0000000121828067, GRID grid.8065.b, Faculty of Graduate Studies, , University of Colombo, ; Colombo, Sri Lanka
                [246 ]ISNI 0000000121828067, GRID grid.8065.b, Institute of Medicine, , University of Colombo, ; Colombo, Sri Lanka
                [247 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 094X, GRID grid.251612.3, School of Midwifery, , A.T. Still University, ; Mesa, AZ USA
                [248 ]GRID grid.448631.c, Environmental Research Center, , Duke Kunshan University, ; Kunshan, China
                [249 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8606, GRID grid.26790.3a, Department of Medicine, , University of Miami, ; Atlantis, FL USA
                [250 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Department of Ophthalmology, , Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [251 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 1243, GRID grid.414373.6, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, , Beijing Tongren Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                [252 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0612 774X, GRID grid.472458.8, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [253 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1010 7301, GRID grid.107891.6, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , University of Opole, ; Opole, Poland
                [254 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1010 7301, GRID grid.107891.6, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, , University of Opole, ; Opole, Poland
                [255 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [256 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, , Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [257 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [258 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1498 685X, GRID grid.411036.1, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, ; Isfahan, Iran
                [259 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0405 433X, GRID grid.412606.7, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, ; Qazvin, Iran
                [260 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9280, GRID grid.411950.8, Department of Epidemiology, , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, ; Hamadan, Iran
                [261 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8831 6915, GRID grid.420118.e, Research and Development, , Australian Red Cross Blood Service, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [262 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, , University of New South Wales, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [263 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [264 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [265 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [266 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2019 0495, GRID grid.10604.33, Odel Campus, University of Nairobi, ; Nairobi, Kenya
                [267 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 1785, GRID grid.17088.36, Michigan State University, ; East Lansing, MI USA
                [268 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Tabriz Health Management Research Center, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [269 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [270 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0097 5797, GRID grid.37553.37, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, , Jordan University of Science and Technology, ; Ramtha, Jordan
                [271 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9296 6873, GRID grid.411230.5, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, ; Ahvaz, Iran
                [272 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0606 8575, GRID grid.413930.c, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, , Health Services Academy, ; Islamabad, Pakistan
                [273 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0613 2600, GRID grid.419349.2, Population Studies, , International Institute for Population Sciences, ; Mumbai, India
                [274 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 2250, GRID grid.413120.5, Department of Internal Medicine, , John H. Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [275 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9363 9292, GRID grid.412080.f, Department of Internal Medicine, , Dow University of Health Sciences, ; Karachi, Pakistan
                [276 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Institute of Health Policy and Management, , Seoul National University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [277 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Department of Health Policy and Management, , Seoul National University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [278 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0303 540X, GRID grid.5884.1, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, , Sheffield Hallam University, ; Sheffield, UK
                [279 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7841, GRID grid.20627.31, Department of Arts and Sciences, , Ohio University, ; Zanesville, OH USA
                [280 ]Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
                [281 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 9286, GRID grid.7776.1, Department of Medical Parasitology, , Cairo University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [282 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9280, GRID grid.411950.8, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, ; Hamadan, Iran
                [283 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Department of Public Health, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [284 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 9017, GRID grid.252754.3, Department of Nutrition and Health Science, , Ball State University, ; Muncie, IN USA
                [285 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, School of Public Health, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [286 ]GRID grid.503008.e, School of Medicine, , Xiamen University Malaysia, ; Sepang, Malaysia
                [287 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0378 6053, GRID grid.28203.3b, Department of Nutrition, , Simmons College, ; Boston, MA USA
                [288 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 3497, GRID grid.457625.7, Department of Health Management and Health Economics, , Kristiania University College, ; Oslo, Norway
                [289 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9075 106X, GRID grid.254567.7, Department of Health Services Policy and Management, , University of South Carolina, ; Columbia, SC USA
                [290 ]Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
                [291 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0455 7818, GRID grid.464565.0, Department of Public Health, , Debre Berhan University, ; Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
                [292 ]Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia
                [293 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0174 2901, GRID grid.414739.c, Department of Internal and Pulmonary Medicine, , Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Srinagar, India
                [294 ]CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi De Llobregat, Spain
                [295 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Department of Zoology, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [296 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Medical School, , Harvard University, ; Boston, MA USA
                [297 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 5640, GRID grid.261674.0, Department of Anthropology, , Panjab University, ; Chandigarh, India
                [298 ]GRID grid.449729.5, Family and Community Health, , University of Health and Allied Sciences, ; Ho, Ghana
                [299 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 4123, GRID grid.16463.36, Psychology and Health Promotion, , University of Kwazulu-Natal, ; Durban, South Africa
                [300 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2019 0495, GRID grid.10604.33, Department of Psychiatry, , University of Nairobi, ; Nairobi, Kenya
                [301 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, Department of Psychology, , University College London, ; London, UK
                [302 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0613 2600, GRID grid.419349.2, International Institute for Population Sciences, ; Mumbai, India
                [303 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 4123, GRID grid.16463.36, Department of Public Health Medicine, , University of Kwazulu-Natal, ; Durban, South Africa
                [304 ]Nursing, St John of God Hospital, Duayaw Nkwanta, Ghana
                [305 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Nuffield Department of Population Health, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [306 ]GRID grid.454382.c, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, , National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), ; Oxford, UK
                [307 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1767 2903, GRID grid.415131.3, Department of Pediatrics, , Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, ; Chandigarh, India
                [308 ]Department of Community and Family Medicine, Academy of Medical Science, Baghdad, Iraq
                [309 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9457, GRID grid.8993.b, Department of Medical Sciences, , Uppsala University, ; Uppsala, Sweden
                [310 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2351 3333, GRID grid.412354.5, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, , Uppsala University Hospital, ; Uppsala, Sweden
                [311 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 6123, GRID grid.16890.36, School of Nursing, , Hong Kong Polytechnic University, ; Hong Kong, China
                [312 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2308 5949, GRID grid.10347.31, Department of Medicine, , University of Malaya, ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [313 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0482, GRID grid.10784.3a, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, , The Chinese University of Hong Kong, ; Shatin, China
                [314 ]ISNI 0000000122931605, GRID grid.5590.9, Department of Dentistry, , Radboud University, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [315 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0328 4908, GRID grid.5253.1, Section for Translational Health Economics, , Heidelberg University Hospital, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [316 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9764, GRID grid.48004.38, Department of Vector Biology, , Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, ; Liverpool, UK
                [317 ]Alliance for Improving Health Outcomes, Quezon City, The Philippines
                [318 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1939 2794, GRID grid.9613.d, Institute of Nutrition, , Friedrich Schiller University Jena, ; Jena, Germany
                [319 ]Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (NUTRICARD), Jena, Germany
                [320 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9889 5690, GRID grid.33003.33, Physiology Department, , Suez Canal University, ; Ismailia, Egypt
                [321 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9889 5690, GRID grid.33003.33, Proteomics and Metabolomics Unit, , Suez Canal University, ; Ismailia, Egypt
                [322 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4699 2981, GRID grid.462079.e, Department of Cardiology, , Damietta University, ; Damietta, Egypt
                [323 ]Ophthalmology Department, Aswan Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt
                [324 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [325 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [326 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4888, GRID grid.8430.f, Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, , Federal University of Minas Gerais, ; Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                [327 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Institute for Social Science Research, , The University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [328 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Ophthalmology Department, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [329 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9609, GRID grid.21613.37, Department Ophthalmology, , University of Manitoba, ; Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada
                [330 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0518 8882, GRID grid.412152.1, Surgery Department, , Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [331 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [332 ]Campus Caucaia, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Caucaia, Brazil
                [333 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0463 6313, GRID grid.472235.5, Faculty of Health and Education, , Botho University-Botswana, ; Gaborone, Botswana
                [334 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Division of Plastic Surgery, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [335 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, School of Medicine, , University of New South Wales, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [336 ]GRID grid.464831.c, Research Department, , The George Institute for Global Health, ; New Delhi, India
                [337 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0775 6028, GRID grid.5371.0, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, , Chalmers University of Technology, ; Gothenburg, Sweden
                [338 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0425 469X, GRID grid.8991.9, Department of Health Services Research and Policy, , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, ; London, UK
                [339 ]GRID grid.501268.8, Preventive Oncology Department, , National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, ; Noida, India
                [340 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 6811, GRID grid.266102.1, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , University of California San Francisco, ; San Francisco, CA USA
                [341 ]Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru
                [342 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0607 035X, GRID grid.411975.f, Forensic Medicine Division, , Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, ; Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [343 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9950 5666, GRID grid.15485.3d, Neurocenter, , Helsinki University Hospital, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [344 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, School of Health Sciences, , University of Melbourne, ; Parkville, Victoria Australia
                [345 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9950 5666, GRID grid.15485.3d, Breast Surgery Unit, , Helsinki University Hospital, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [346 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [347 ]Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia
                [348 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4651 2415, GRID grid.502995.2, University Centre Varazdin, University North, ; Varazdin, Croatia
                [349 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9994 4271, GRID grid.280247.b, Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, ; Calverton, MD USA
                [350 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8227, GRID grid.25073.33, Health, Evidence and Impact, , McMaster University, ; Hamilton, Ontario Canada
                [351 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7910, GRID grid.1012.2, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, , University of Western Australia, ; Perth, Western Australia Australia
                [352 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1766 1016, GRID grid.427788.6, Department of Public Health, , Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Kochi, India
                [353 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, , Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [354 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0418 0096, GRID grid.411747.0, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, ; Gorgan, Iran
                [355 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [356 ]GRID grid.444253.0, Faculty of General Medicine, , Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, ; Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
                [357 ]Department of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Disease, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
                [358 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Health Equity Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [359 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Medicine Huddinge, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [360 ]GRID grid.444950.8, Department of Food Technology, College of Agriculture, , Salahaddin University-Erbil, ; Erbil, Iraq
                [361 ]GRID grid.472438.e, Information Technology Department, , University of Human Development, ; Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
                [362 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9280, GRID grid.411950.8, Department of Biostatistics, , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, ; Hamadan, Iran
                [363 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0108 7468, GRID grid.192267.9, School of Pharmacy, , Haramaya University, ; Harar, Ethiopia
                [364 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Institute of Public Health, , Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [365 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1493, GRID grid.411225.1, Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, , Ahmadu Bello University, ; Zaria, Nigeria
                [366 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, GRID grid.13097.3c, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, , King’s College London, ; London, UK
                [367 ]Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy
                [368 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Health Sciences Research Center, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [369 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6812, GRID grid.484406.a, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, ; Sanandaj, Iran
                [370 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6812, GRID grid.484406.a, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, ; Sanandaj, Iran
                [371 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Department of Epidemiology, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [372 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1699, GRID grid.7340.0, Department of Mathematical Sciences, , University of Bath, ; Bath, UK
                [373 ]ISNI 0000000089150953, GRID grid.1024.7, International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, , Queensland University of Technology, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [374 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1781 3962, GRID grid.412266.5, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, , Tarbiat Modares University, ; Tehran, Iran
                [375 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Health Management and Economics, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [376 ]Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
                [377 ]Center for Population and Health, Wiesbaden, Germany
                [378 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, GRID grid.59547.3a, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , University of Gondar, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                [379 ]Department of Pediatric Medicine, Nishtar Medical University, Multan, Pakistan
                [380 ]Department of Pediatrics & Pediatric Pulmonology, Institute of Mother & Child Care, Multan, Pakistan
                [381 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Urology, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [382 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Operating Room Department, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [383 ]Research and Analytics, Initiative for Financing Health and Human Development, Chennai, India
                [384 ]Research and Analytics, Bioinsilico Technologies, Chennai, India
                [385 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Cancer Research Center of Cancer Institute, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [386 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [387 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1801 630X, GRID grid.419712.8, Suraj Eye Institute, ; Nagpur, India
                [388 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9155 0024, GRID grid.415021.3, Cochrane South Africa, , South African Medical Research Council, ; Cape Town, South Africa
                [389 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9828 7548, GRID grid.8194.4, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, , Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [390 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9828 7548, GRID grid.8194.4, General Surgery Department, , Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [391 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9828 7548, GRID grid.8194.4, Anatomy and Embryology Department, , Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [392 ]Department of Cardiology, Cardio-aid, Bucharest, Romania
                [393 ]ISNI 0000 0004 5946 6665, GRID grid.494614.a, Department of Biological Sciences, , University of Embu, ; Embu, Kenya
                [394 ]GRID grid.444918.4, Institute for Global Health Innovations, , Duy Tan University, ; Hanoi, Vietnam
                [395 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4659 3737, GRID grid.473736.2, Center for Excellence in Behavioral Health, , Nguyen Tat Thanh University, ; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
                [396 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Global Health Department, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [397 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Department of Pediatrics, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [398 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, Clinical Pharmacy Unit, , Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [399 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1151, GRID grid.7836.a, Public Health Science Department, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, , University of Cape Town, ; Cape Town, South Africa
                [400 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Department of Community and Family Medicine, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [401 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0612 774X, GRID grid.472458.8, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [402 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, GRID grid.412888.f, Department of Health Economics, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [403 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1151, GRID grid.7836.a, Department of Medicine, , University of Cape Town, ; Cape Town, South Africa
                [404 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7857, GRID grid.1002.3, Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, , Monash University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [405 ]Independent Consultant, Accra, Ghana
                [406 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9939 5719, GRID grid.1029.a, Translational Health Research Institute, , Western Sydney University, ; Penrith, New South Wales Australia
                [407 ]Center for the Aid Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) TB and HIV Pathogenesis Unit, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Durban, South Africa
                [408 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8227, GRID grid.25073.33, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, , McMaster University, ; Hamilton, Ontario Canada
                [409 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1803 1817, GRID grid.411782.9, Department of Psychiatry, , University of Lagos, ; Lagos, Nigeria
                [410 ]Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Tehran, Iran
                [411 ]GRID grid.442626.0, Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, , Gulu University, ; Gulu, Uganda
                [412 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Ghent University, ; Ghent, Belgium
                [413 ]GRID grid.452302.2, Centre for Healthy Start Initiative, ; Lagos, Nigeria
                [414 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Department of Health Promotion and Education, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [415 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2108 8257, GRID grid.10757.34, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, , University of Nigeria Nsukka, ; Enugu, Nigeria
                [416 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [417 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 1491, GRID grid.263081.e, Graduate School of Public Health, , San Diego State University, ; San Diego, CA USA
                [418 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 4764, GRID grid.415771.1, Center for Health Systems Research, , National Institute of Public Health, ; Cuernavaca, Mexico
                [419 ]ISNI 0000000119578126, GRID grid.5515.4, School of Medicine, , Autonomous University of Madrid, ; Madrid, Spain
                [420 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0425 3881, GRID grid.411171.3, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, , The Institute for Health Research Foundation Jiménez Díaz University Hospital, ; Madrid, Spain
                [421 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 219X, GRID grid.413068.8, Environmental Management and Toxicology, , University of Benin, ; Benin City, Nigeria
                [422 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0399 8953, GRID grid.6214.1, Faculty of Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, , University of Twente, ; Enschede, The Netherlands
                [423 ]GRID grid.449674.c, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, , University of Energy and Natural Resources, ; Sunyani, Ghana
                [424 ]ISNI 0000000092721542, GRID grid.18763.3b, Analytical Center, , Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ; Dolgoprudny, Russia
                [425 ]Committee for the Comprehensive Assessment of Medical Devices and Information Technology, Health Technology Assessment Association, Moscow, Russia
                [426 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [427 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 157X, GRID grid.411962.9, Department of Tb & Respiratory Medicine, , Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University, ; Mysore, India
                [428 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9606 5108, GRID grid.412687.e, Department of Medicine, , Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, ; Ottawa, Ontario Canada
                [429 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [430 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0532 9454, GRID grid.411144.5, Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, , Kosin University, ; Busan, South Korea
                [431 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9090 0571, GRID grid.482915.3, Research and Evaluation, , Population Council, ; New Delhi, India
                [432 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0495 1821, GRID grid.464858.3, Indian Institute of Health Management Research University, ; Jaipur, India
                [433 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1370, GRID grid.443223.0, Center for Research and Innovation, , Ateneo De Manila University, ; Pasig City, The Philippines
                [434 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Genetics, , Harvard University, ; Boston, MA USA
                [435 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, , University of São Paulo, ; Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [436 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Department of Cardiology, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [437 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1781 3962, GRID grid.412266.5, Parasitology and Entomology Department, , Tarbiat Modares University, ; Tehran, Iran
                [438 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1956 2722, GRID grid.7048.b, National Centre for Register-Based Research, , Aarhus University, ; Aarhus, Denmark
                [439 ]GRID grid.449862.5, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, , Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, ; Maragheh, Iran
                [440 ]GRID grid.449862.5, Department of Public Health, , Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, ; Maragheh, Iran
                [441 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, , Alborz University of Medical Sciences, ; Karaj, Iran
                [442 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 6995, GRID grid.411368.9, Biomedical Engineering, , Amirkabir University of Technology, ; Tehran, Iran
                [443 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 094X, GRID grid.251612.3, College of Graduate Health Sciences, , A.T. Still University, ; Mesa, AZ USA
                [444 ]Medichem, Barcelona, Spain
                [445 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [446 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Department of Immunology, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [447 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [448 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9296 6873, GRID grid.411230.5, Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, ; Ahvaz, Iran
                [449 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [450 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [451 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Department of Health Education & Promotion, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [452 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1767 2356, GRID grid.416345.1, Department of Nephrology, , Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Hyderabad, India
                [453 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [454 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Critical Care Quality Improvement Research Center, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [455 ]Policy Research Institute, Kathmandu, Nepal
                [456 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5454, GRID grid.15444.30, Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development, , Yonsei University, ; Wonju, South Korea
                [457 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Institute of Public Health, , Federal University of Bahia, ; Salvador, Brazil
                [458 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 0931, GRID grid.418068.3, Gonçalo Moniz Institute, , Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ; Salvador, Brazil
                [459 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [460 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9939 5719, GRID grid.1029.a, Social Science and Psychology, , Western Sydney University, ; Penrith, New South Wales Australia
                [461 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9939 5719, GRID grid.1029.a, School of Social Sciences and Psychology, , Western Sydney University, ; Penrith, New South Wales Australia
                [462 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [463 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Department of Epidemiology, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [464 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 4622, GRID grid.411701.2, Department of Epidemiology, , Birjand University of Medical Sciences, ; Birjand, Iran
                [465 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1503 7226, GRID grid.5808.5, EPIUnit, , University of Porto, ; Porto, Portugal
                [466 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4647 6936, GRID grid.411284.a, Department of Clinical Research, , Federal University of Uberlândia, ; Uberlândia, Brazil
                [467 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Public Health, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [468 ]GRID grid.449817.7, Department of Public Health, , Wollega University, ; Nekemte, Ethiopia
                [469 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Martin School, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [470 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0418 0096, GRID grid.411747.0, Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, , Golestan University of Medical Sciences, ; Gorgan, Iran
                [471 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6812, GRID grid.484406.a, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, ; Sanandaj, Iran
                [472 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, , Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [473 ]School of Biotechnology, Ikiam Amazon Regional University, Tena, Ecuador
                [474 ]GRID grid.263817.9, Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, , Southern University of Science and Technology, ; Shenzhen, China
                [475 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 9138, GRID grid.11450.31, Department of Biomedical Sciences, , University of Sassari, ; Sassari, Italy
                [476 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Department of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [477 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Faculty of Public Health, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [478 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, GRID grid.411746.1, Department of Neuroscience, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [479 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2198 6209, GRID grid.411583.a, Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, ; Mashhad, Iran
                [480 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2198 6209, GRID grid.411583.a, Biotechnology Research Center, , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, ; Mashhad, Iran
                [481 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Department of Anatomical Sciences, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [482 ]Department of Pathology, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [483 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9430, GRID grid.21100.32, School of Health and Policy Management, Faculty of Health, , York University, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [484 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Taleghani Hospital, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [485 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [486 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0612 6616, GRID grid.416883.0, Taleghani Hospital, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [487 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Center for Health Policy & Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, , Stanford University, ; Stanford, CA USA
                [488 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0621 1570, GRID grid.7269.a, Department of Entomology, , Ain Shams University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [489 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2166 9385, GRID grid.7149.b, Centre School of Public Health and Health Management, , University of Belgrade, ; Belgrade, Serbia
                [490 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4888, GRID grid.8430.f, Post-graduate Program in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, , Federal University of Minas Gerais, ; Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                [491 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0505 3013, GRID grid.415349.e, Department of Community Medicine, , PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, ; Coimbatore, India
                [492 ]PSG-FAIMER South Asia Regional Institute, Coimbatore, India
                [493 ]GRID grid.442162.7, Department of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, , University of Applied and Environmental Sciences, ; Bogotá, Colombia
                [494 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0425 469X, GRID grid.8991.9, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, ; London, UK
                [495 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0571 546X, GRID grid.413548.f, Surgery Department, , Hamad Medical Corporation, ; Doha, Qatar
                [496 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0728 4630, GRID grid.17236.31, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, , Bournemouth University, ; Bournemouth, UK
                [497 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, School of Public Health, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [498 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, Department of Psychology, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [499 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Center of Expertise in Microbiology, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [500 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Invasive Fungi Research Center, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [501 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, GRID grid.411705.6, Department of Health Promotion and Education, , Alborz University of Medical Sciences, ; Karaj, Iran
                [502 ]Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan
                [503 ]School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran
                [504 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2227 0923, GRID grid.411623.3, Medical Laboratory Sciences, , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, ; Sari, Iran
                [505 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9280, GRID grid.411950.8, Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, ; Hamadan, Iran
                [506 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 1701, GRID grid.411769.c, Department of Laboratory Sciences, , Karaj Islamic Azad University, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [507 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 1701, GRID grid.411769.c, Department of Basic Sciences, , Karaj Islamic Azad University, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [508 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2092 9755, GRID grid.412105.3, HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, , Kerman University of Medical Sciences, ; Kerman, Iran
                [509 ]GRID grid.415696.9, Policy and Planning Division, , Ministry of Health, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [510 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0674 5044, GRID grid.440678.9, University School of Management and Entrepreneurship, , Delhi Technological University, ; New Delhi, India
                [511 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, , Harvard University, ; Boston, MA USA
                [512 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7988, GRID grid.4305.2, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, , University of Edinburgh, ; Edinburgh, UK
                [513 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2220 1880, GRID grid.410795.e, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [514 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 5926, GRID grid.6975.d, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [515 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0679 2801, GRID grid.9018.0, Institute of Medical Epidemiology, , Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, ; Halle, Germany
                [516 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, Department of Epidemiology, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [517 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, Department of Medicine, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [518 ]Department of Epidemiology, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India
                [519 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1760 4062, GRID grid.452712.7, Department of Epidemiology, , Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, ; Mumbai, India
                [520 ]Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Næstved-Slagelse-Ringsted Hospitals, Slagelse, Denmark
                [521 ]Medical Division, German Leprosy and TB Relief Association Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [522 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Department of Medicine, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [523 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7697, GRID grid.22072.35, Department of Medicine, , University of Calgary, ; Calgary, Alberta Canada
                [524 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [525 ]ISNI 0000000119578126, GRID grid.5515.4, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, , Autonomous University of Madrid, ; Madrid, Spain
                [526 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9314 1427, GRID grid.413448.e, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), , Institute of Health Carlos III, ; Madrid, Spain
                [527 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8946 5787, GRID grid.411729.8, Division of Community Medicine, , International Medical University, ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [528 ]GRID grid.444490.9, Department of Nursing, , Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, ; Kartasura, Indonesia
                [529 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1493, GRID grid.411225.1, Department of Community Medicine, , Ahmadu Bello University, ; Zaria, Nigeria
                [530 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7243, GRID grid.266093.8, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, , University of California Irvine, ; Irvine, CA USA
                [531 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0682 4092, GRID grid.416257.3, Neurology Department, , Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, ; Trivandrum, India
                [532 ]GRID grid.469673.9, Carlos III Health Institute, , Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), ; Madrid, Spain
                [533 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 938X, GRID grid.5338.d, Department of Medicine, , University of Valencia, ; Valencia, Spain
                [534 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9991, GRID grid.35403.31, School of Social Work, , University of Illinois, ; Urbana, IL USA
                [535 ]GRID grid.489169.b, Cancer Control Center, , Osaka International Cancer Institute, ; Osaka, Japan
                [536 ]University Institute ‘Egas Moniz’, Monte Da Caparica, Portugal
                [537 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4263, GRID grid.9983.b, Research Institute for Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy of Lisbon, , University of Lisbon, ; Lisbon, Portugal
                [538 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, GRID grid.56302.32, Department of Pediatrics, , King Saud University, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [539 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 7207, GRID grid.411335.1, College of Medicine, , Alfaisal University, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [540 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9136 933X, GRID grid.27755.32, Anesthesiology Department, , University of Virginia, ; Charlottesville, VA USA
                [541 ]Syrian Expatriate Medical Association (SEMA), Charlottesville, VA USA
                [542 ]GRID grid.440670.1, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, , Central University Kerala, ; Kasaragod, India
                [543 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2224 0361, GRID grid.59025.3b, Nanyang Technological University, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [544 ]ISNI 0000000089150953, GRID grid.1024.7, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, , Queensland University of Technology, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [545 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, , University of São Paulo, ; Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [546 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0642 8489, GRID grid.56046.31, Department of Health Economics, , Hanoi Medical University, ; Hanoi, Vietnam
                [547 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 3343, GRID grid.9654.e, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, , University of Auckland, ; Auckland, New Zealand
                [548 ]Clinical Hematology and Toxicology, Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
                [549 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0221 6962, GRID grid.411749.e, Gomal Center of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, , Gomal University, ; Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
                [550 ]TB Culture Laboratory, Mufti Mehmood Memorial Teaching Hospital, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
                [551 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8809 1613, GRID grid.7372.1, Division of Health Sciences, , University of Warwick, ; Coventry, UK
                [552 ]Department of Education and Health, Trauma Research Center, Tehran, Iran
                [553 ]Critical and Intensive Care Department, Trauma Research Center, Tehran, Iran
                [554 ]Argentine Society of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [555 ]Velez Sarsfield Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [556 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0407 1981, GRID grid.4830.f, University Medical Center Groningen, , University of Groningen, ; Groningen, The Netherlands
                [557 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9558 4598, GRID grid.4494.d, Department of General Practice, , University Medical Center Groningen, ; Groningen, The Netherlands
                [558 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0472 1876, GRID grid.416983.1, Ukk Institute, ; Tampere, Finland
                [559 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 9352, GRID grid.411528.b, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, , Ilam University of Medical Sciences, ; Ilam, Iran
                [560 ]Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
                [561 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 6431, GRID grid.4280.e, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, , National University of Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [562 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 1758, GRID grid.6292.f, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, , University of Bologna, ; Bologna, Italy
                [563 ]GRID grid.412311.4, Occupational Health Unit, , Sant’orsola Malpighi Hospital, ; Bologna, Italy
                [564 ]ISNI 0000000092721542, GRID grid.18763.3b, Department of Information Technologies and Management, , Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ; Dolgoprudny, Russia
                [565 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 8774, GRID grid.448878.f, Department of Information and Internet Technologies, , I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, ; Moscow, Russia
                [566 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0578 2005, GRID grid.410682.9, Department of Health Care Administration and Economy, , National Research University Higher School of Economics, ; Moscow, Russia
                [567 ]GRID grid.444791.b, Foundation University Medical College, , Foundation University, ; Rawalpindi, Pakistan
                [568 ]ISNI 0000000122986657, GRID grid.34477.33, Department of Statistics, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [569 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2331 6153, GRID grid.49470.3e, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, China
                [570 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Department of Psychiatry, , University of São Paulo, ; Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [571 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, Institute of Child Health, , University College London, ; London, UK
                [572 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0614 0346, GRID grid.416107.5, Cardiology Department, , Royal Children’s Hospital, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [573 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9442 535X, GRID grid.1058.c, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [574 ]GRID grid.448640.a, School of Nursing, , Aksum University, ; Aksum, Ethiopia
                [575 ]Competence Center of Mortality-Follow-Up, Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
                [576 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9155 0024, GRID grid.415021.3, Cochrane South Africa, , Medical Research Council South Africa, ; Cape Town, South Africa
                [577 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2214 904X, GRID grid.11956.3a, Department of Global Health, , Stellenbosch University, ; Cape Town, South Africa
                [578 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1539 8988, GRID grid.30820.39, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, , Mekelle University, ; Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [579 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Department of Pharmacology, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [580 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0348 3990, GRID grid.268099.c, Zhejiang Spine Research Center, , Wenzhou Medical University, ; Wenzhou, China
                [581 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2314 964X, GRID grid.41156.37, School of Medicine, , Nanjing University, ; Nanjing, China
                [582 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, , University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [583 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2092 9755, GRID grid.412105.3, Department of Health Management, Policy and Economics, , Kerman University of Medical Sciences, ; Kerman, Iran
                [584 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2092 9755, GRID grid.412105.3, Health Services Management Research Center, , Kerman University of Medical Sciences, ; Kerman, Iran
                [585 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8510 4538, GRID grid.412989.f, Department of Pediatrics, , University of Jos, ; Jos, Nigeria
                [586 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1783 4052, GRID grid.411946.f, Department of Pediatrics, , Jos University Teaching Hospital, ; Jos, Nigeria
                [587 ]ISNI 0000000121742757, GRID grid.194645.b, Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, , University of Hong Kong, ; Hong Kong, China
                [588 ]ISNI 0000000121742757, GRID grid.194645.b, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, , University of Hong Kong, ; Hong Kong, China
                [589 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1763 8916, GRID grid.419280.6, Department of Psychopharmacology, , National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [590 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0671 8898, GRID grid.257990.0, Health Economics & Finance, Global Health, , Jackson State University, ; Jackson, MS USA
                [591 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0662 3178, GRID grid.12527.33, Research Center for Public Health, , Tsinghua University, ; Peking, China
                [592 ]GRID grid.411600.2, Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Research Center, , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [593 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 9286, GRID grid.7776.1, Medical Parasitology Department, , Cairo University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [594 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2331 6153, GRID grid.49470.3e, Global Health Institute, , Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, China
                [595 ]Department of Health Management and Economics, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Tehran, Iran
                [596 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 9747, GRID grid.412553.4, Department of Electrical Engineering, , Sharif University of Technology, ; Tehran, Iran
                [597 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8841 7951, GRID grid.418744.a, Electrical Engineering, , Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [598 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 7226, GRID grid.411426.4, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, , Ardabil University of Medical Science, ; Ardabil, Iran
                [599 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0600 7174, GRID grid.414142.6, Maternal and Child Health Division, , International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, ; Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [600 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7857, GRID grid.1002.3, Department of Medicine, , Monash University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [601 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0421 4102, GRID grid.411495.c, Student Research Committee, , Babol University of Medical Sciences, ; Babol, Iran
                [602 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0611 7226, GRID grid.411426.4, Department of Community Medicine, , Ardabil University of Medical Science, ; Ardabil, Iran
                [603 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2012 5829, GRID grid.412112.5, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, ; Kermanshah, Iran
                [604 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2221 4219, GRID grid.413355.5, Maternal and Child Wellbeing Unit, , African Population Health Research Centre, ; Nairobi, Kenya
                [605 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1762 2666, GRID grid.472268.d, Public Health Department, , Dilla University, ; Dilla, Ethiopia
                [606 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2331 6153, GRID grid.49470.3e, Department of Preventative Medicine, , Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, China
                [607 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9868 173X, GRID grid.412787.f, School of Public Health, , Wuhan University of Science and Technology, ; Wuhan, China
                [608 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 0198, GRID grid.415361.4, Indian Institute of Public Health, , Public Health Foundation of India, ; Gurugram, India
                [609 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, School of BioSciences, , University of Melbourne, Parkville, ; Victoria, Australia
                [610 ]State University of Semarang, Public Health Science Department, Kota Semarang, Indonesia
                [611 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9337 0481, GRID grid.412896.0, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, , Taipei Medical University, ; Taipei City, Taiwan
                Article
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                © The Author(s) 2019

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                developing world, paediatrics, public health

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