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      Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity and Machine Learning Classification Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Mediterranean Plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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          Abstract

          Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism and opportunistic pathogen that can cause persistent infections due to its peculiar antibiotic resistance mechanisms and to its ability to adhere and form biofilm. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of biofilm formation has recently increased. The aim of this study was to seek new non-biocidal agents able to inhibit biofilm formation, in order to counteract virulence rather than bacterial growth and avoid the selection of escape mutants. Herein, different essential oils extracted from Mediterranean plants were analyzed for their activity against P. aeruginosa. Results show that they were able to destabilize biofilm at very low concentration without impairing bacterial viability. Since the action is not related to a bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity on P. aeruginosa, the biofilm change of growth in presence of the essential oils was possibly due to a modulation of the phenotype. To this aim, application of machine learning algorithms led to the development of quantitative activity–composition relationships classification models that allowed to direct point out those essential oil chemical components more involved in the inhibition of biofilm production. The action of selected essential oils on sessile phenotype make them particularly interesting for possible applications such as prevention of bacterial contamination in the community and in healthcare environments in order to prevent human infections. We assayed 89 samples of different essential oils as P. aeruginosa anti-biofilm. Many samples inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm at concentrations as low as 48.8 µg/mL. Classification of the models was developed through machine learning algorithms.

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          Most cited references 31

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              Basic principles of ROC analysis

              The limitations of diagnostic "accuracy" as a measure of decision performance require introduction of the concepts of the "sensitivity" and "specificity" of a diagnostic test. These measures and the related indices, "true positive fraction" and "false positive fraction," are more meaningful than "accuracy," yet do not provide a unique description of diagnostic performance because they depend on the arbitrary selection of a decision threshold. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is shown to be a simple yet complete empirical description of this decision threshold effect, indicating all possible combinations of the relative frequencies of the various kinds of correct and incorrect decisions. Practical experimental techniques for measuring ROC curves are described, and the issues of case selection and curve-fitting are discussed briefly. Possible generalizations of conventional ROC analysis to account for decision performance in complex diagnostic tasks are indicated. ROC analysis is shown to be related in a direct and natural way to cost/benefit analysis of diagnostic decision making. The concepts of "average diagnostic cost" and "average net benefit" are developed and used to identify the optimal compromise among various kinds of diagnostic error. Finally, the way in which ROC analysis can be employed to optimize diagnostic strategies is suggested.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy; marco.artini@ 123456uniroma1.it (M.A.); rosanna.papa@ 123456uniroma1.it (R.P.); gianluca.vrenna@ 123456uniroma1.it (G.V.); marco.tilotta@ 123456uniroma1.it (M.T.); laura.selan@ 123456uniroma1.it (L.S.)
                [2 ]Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy; alexandros.patsilinakos@ 123456uniroma1.it (A.P.); mijatboz@ 123456gmail.com (M.B.); manuela.sabatino@ 123456uniroma1.it (M.S.); stefania.garzoli@ 123456uniroma1.it (S.G.); federico.pepi@ 123456uniroma1.it (F.P.)
                [3 ]Rome Center for Molecular Design, Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Alchemical Dynamics s.r.l., 00125 Rome, Italy
                [5 ]Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rino.ragno@ 123456uniroma1.it ; Tel.: +39-6-4991-3937; Fax: +39-6-4991-3627
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                23 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 23
                : 2
                29473844 6017904 10.3390/molecules23020482 molecules-23-00482
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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