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      Prevalence and correlates of malnutrition among hemodialysis patients at hebron governmental hospital, Palestine: cross-sectional study

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          Malnutrition is a usually observed condition among patients on hemodialysis and is considered one of sturdiest indicators of mortality and morbidity.


          The current study was performed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition, to verify whether functional status is associated with malnutrition, and to explore the probable factors related to malnutrition among a sample of hemodialysis patients at Hebron Governmental Hospital in West Bank, Palestine.


          A cross-sectional study was conducted on hemodialysis patients in Hebron Governmental Hospital at Hebron city/Palestine. An interview-based questionnaire was used to obtain information related to socio-demographics, dialysis, medical history, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, dietary data, and functional status. Renal inpatient screening tool (renal iNUT) was also utilized to screen hemodialysis patients for malnutrition. Furthermore, biochemical tests were obtained during the study period from medical files of the studied patients.


          A total of 153 patients, having a mean age of 50.1 ± 16.6 years, were involved in the final analysis. The results indicated that the prevalence of high risk of malnutrition (45.4 %). Moreover, high risk of malnutrition was significantly associated with occupation, and walking. It was further found that patients with high risk of malnutrition are more likely to had osteoporosis, unable to ambulate, didn’t feel that the amount of food they eat is enough. Our findings also figured out that some complications during hemodialysis session (e.g., headache, nausea, hypotension) and some hemodialysis side effects (e.g., itching, access site complication) were significantly correlated to malnutrition.


          A high prevalence of malnutrition was revealed among hemodialysis using renal iNUT screening tool. Improving nutritional assessment methods for patients on hemodialysis is highly needed. Findings reveals that risk of malnutrition is associated with multiple factors such as osteoporosis, occupation, walking, ability to ambulate, certain complication during hemodialysis session, and some hemodialysis side effects. Further studies are highly recommended.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in dialysis patients: causes and consequences.

          Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and usually concurrent in maintenance dialysis patients. Many factors that appear to lead to these 2 conditions overlap, as do assessment tools and such criteria for detecting them as hypoalbuminemia. Both these conditions are related to poor dialysis outcome. Low appetite and a hypercatabolic state are among common features. PEM in dialysis patients has been suggested to be secondary to inflammation; however, the evidence is not conclusive, and an equicausal status or even opposite causal direction is possible. Hence, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) is an appropriate term. Possible causes of MICS include comorbid illnesses, oxidative and carbonyl stress, nutrient loss through dialysis, anorexia and low nutrient intake, uremic toxins, decreased clearance of inflammatory cytokines, volume overload, and dialysis-related factors. MICS is believed to be the main cause of erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness, high rate of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality and hospitalization in dialysis patients. Because MICS leads to a low body mass index, hypocholesterolemia, hypocreatininemia, and hypohomocysteinemia, a "reverse epidemiology" of cardiovascular risks can occur in dialysis patients. Therefore, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and increased blood levels of creatinine and homocysteine appear to be protective and paradoxically associated with a better outcome. There is no consensus about how to determine the degree of severity of MICS or how to manage it. Several diagnostic tools and treatment modalities are discussed. Successful management of MICS may ameliorate the cardiovascular epidemic and poor outcome in dialysis patients. Clinical trials focusing on MICS and its possible causes and consequences are urgently required to improve poor clinical outcome in dialysis patients.
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            Subjective global assessment of nutritional status is strongly associated with mortality in chronic dialysis patients.

            The subjective global assessment of nutritional status (SGA) is used to assess the nutritional status of chronic dialysis patients, but longitudinal data in relation to mortality risk are lacking. Our objective was to study the long-term and time-dependent associations of the SGA with mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients. In a prospective, longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of incident dialysis patients, the 7-point SGA [7 = normal nutritional status; 1 = severe protein-energy wasting (PEW)] was assessed 3 and 6 mo after the start of dialysis and subsequently every 6 mo during 7 y of follow-up. With Cox regression analysis, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of the baseline and time-dependent SGA measurements, adjusted for age, sex, treatment modality, primary kidney diseases, and comorbidity. In total, 1601 patients were included [mean (+/-SD) age: 59 +/- 15 y; 61% men; 23% with moderate PEW (SGA(4-5)), and 5% with severe PEW (SGA(1-3))]. There was a dose-dependent trend of the 7-point SGA with mortality. Compared with a normal nutritional status at baseline, SGA(4-5) (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.9) and SGA(1-3) (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.8) were associated with an increase in 7-y mortality. Time-dependently, these associations were stronger: SGA(4-5) (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) and SGA(1-3) (HR: 5.0; 95% CI: 3.8, 6.5). In dialysis patients, PEW at baseline assessed with SGA was associated with a 2-fold increased mortality risk in 7 y of follow-up. Time-dependently, this association was even stronger, which indicated that PEW was associated with a remarkably high risk of short-term mortality. These data imply that the 7-point SGA may validly distinguish different degrees of PEW associated with increasing risks of mortality.
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              Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: Common theme in physiology and pathology

               Hui Wang,  Jianping Ye (2015)
              Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immune cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 June 2021
                7 June 2021
                : 22
                [1 ]GRID grid.11942.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0631 5695, Department of Nutrition and Food technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary medicine, , An-Najah National University, ; Nablus, West Bank Palestine
                [2 ]GRID grid.442900.b, ISNI 0000 0001 0702 891X, Department of Nutrition and Food technology, Faculty of Agriculture, , Hebron university, ; Hebron, West Bank Palestine
                [3 ]GRID grid.440591.d, ISNI 0000 0004 0444 686X, Healthy and Therapeutic Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , Palestine Polytechnic University, ; Hebron, Palestine
                © The Author(s) 2021

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                prevalence, hemodialysis, malnutrition, indicators


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