0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Ochraceocephala foeniculi gen. et sp. nov., a new pathogen causing crown rot of fennel in Italy

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          A new disease of fennel is described from Sicily (southern Italy). Surveys of the disease and sampling were conducted during spring 2017 and 2018 in Adrano and Bronte municipalities (Catania province) where this crop is widely cultivated. Isolations from the margin of symptomatic tissues resulted in fungal colonies with the same morphology. Pathogenicity tests with one isolate of the fungus on 6-month-old plants of fennel reproduced similar symptoms to those observed in nature. Inoculation experiments to assess the susceptibility of six different fennel cultivars to infection by the pathogen showed that the cultivars ‘Narciso’, ‘Apollo’, and ‘Pompeo’ were more susceptible than ‘Aurelio’, ‘Archimede’, and ‘Pegaso’. Phylogenetic analyses based on a matrix of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the large subunit (LSU), and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA regions revealed that the isolates represent a new genus and species within the Leptosphaeriaceae , which is here described as Ochraceocephala foeniculi gen. et sp. nov. This study improves the understanding of this new fennel disease, but further studies are needed for planning effective disease management strategies. According to the results of the phylogenetic analyses, Subplenodomus iridicola is transferred to the genus Alloleptosphaeria and Acicuseptoria rumicis to Paraleptosphaeria .

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous.

          The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A multi-gene phylogeny of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Fungi): identification of localized incongruence using a combinational bootstrap approach.

            Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses were conducted to address the evolution of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota). Data are presented here for approximately 5900 base pairs from portions of seven loci: the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunit DNA (nrSSU and nrLSU), beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha), the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), and mitochondrial ATP Synthase subunit 6 (mtATP6). These data were analyzed in a complete 66-taxon matrix and 91-taxon supermatrix that included some missing data. Separate phylogenetic analyses, with data partitioned according to genes, produced some conflicting results. The results of separate analyses from RPB1 and RPB2 are in agreement with the combined analyses that resolve a paraphyletic Clavicipitaceae comprising three well-supported clades (i.e., Clavicipitaceae clade A, B, and C), whereas the tree obtained from mtATP6 is in strong conflict with the monophyly of Clavicipitaceae clade B and the sister-group relationship of Hypocreaceae and Clavicipitaceae clade C. The distribution of relative contribution of nodal support for each gene partition was assessed using both partitioned Bremer support (PBS) values and combinational bootstrap (CB) analyses, the latter of which analyzed bootstrap proportions from all possible combinations of the seven gene partitions. These results suggest that CB analyses provide a more consistent estimate of nodal support than PBS and that combining heterogeneous gene partitions, which individually support a limited number of nodes, results in increased support for overall tree topology. Analyses of the 91-taxa supermatrix data sets revealed that some nodes were more strongly supported by increased taxon sampling. Identifying the localized incongruence of mtATP6 and analyses of complete and supermatrix data sets strengthen the evidence for rejecting the monophyly of Clavicipitaceae and much of the current subfamilial classification of the family. Although the monophyly of the grass-associated subfamily Clavicipitoideae (e.g., Claviceps, Balansia, and Epichloë) is strongly supported, the subfamily Cordycipitoideae (e.g., Cordyceps and Torrubiella) is not monophyletic. In particular, species of the genus Cordyceps, which are pathogens of arthropods and truffles, are found in all three clavicipitaceous clades. These results imply that most characters used in the current familial classification of Clavicipitaceae are not diagnostic of monophyly.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Redisposition of phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales

              The anamorphic genus Phoma was subdivided into nine sections based on morphological characters, and included teleomorphs in Didymella, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Mycosphaerella, suggesting the polyphyly of the genus. Recent molecular, phylogenetic studies led to the conclusion that Phoma should be restricted to Didymellaceae. The present study focuses on the taxonomy of excluded Phoma species, currently classified in Phoma sections Plenodomus, Heterospora and Pilosa. Species of Leptosphaeria and Phoma section Plenodomus are reclassified in Plenodomus, Subplenodomus gen. nov., Leptosphaeria and Paraleptosphaeria gen. nov., based on the phylogeny determined by analysis of sequence data of the large subunit 28S nrDNA (LSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS). Phoma heteromorphospora, type species of Phoma section Heterospora, and its allied species Phoma dimorphospora, are transferred to the genus Heterospora stat. nov. The Phoma acuta complex (teleomorph Leptosphaeria doliolum), is revised based on a multilocus sequence analysis of the LSU, ITS, small subunit 18S nrDNA (SSU), β-tubulin (TUB), and chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1) regions. Species of Phoma section Pilosa and allied Ascochyta species were determined to belong to Pleosporaceae based on analysis of actin (ACT) sequence data. Anamorphs that are similar morphologically to Phoma and described in Ascochyta, Asteromella, Coniothyrium, Plectophomella, Pleurophoma and Pyrenochaeta are included in this study. Phoma-like species, which grouped outside the Pleosporineae based on a LSU sequence analysis, are transferred to the genera Aposphaeria, Paraconiothyrium and Westerdykella. The genera Medicopsis gen. nov. and Nigrograna gen. nov. are introduced to accommodate the medically important species formerly known as Pyrenochaeta romeroi and Pyrenochaeta mackinnonii, respectively. Taxonomic novelties: New genera: Medicopsis Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Nigrograna Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Paraleptosphaeria Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Subplenodomus Gruyter, Verkley & Crous. New species: Aposphaeria corallinolutea Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paraconiothyrium maculicutis Verkley & Gruyter. New combinations: Coniothyrium carteri (Gruyter & Boerema) Verkley & Gruyter, C. dolichi (Mohanty) Verkley & Gruyter, C. glycines (R.B. Stewart) Verkley & Gruyter, C. multiporum (V.H. Pawar, P.N. Mathur & Thirum.) Verkley & Gruyter, C. telephii (Allesch.) Verkley & Gruyter, Heterospora (Boerema, Gruyter & Noordel.) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, H. chenopodii (Westend.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, H. dimorphospora (Speg.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Leptosphaeria errabunda (Desm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. etheridgei (L.J. Hutchison & Y. Hirats.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. macrocapsa (Trail) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. pedicularis (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. rubefaciens (Togliani) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. sclerotioides (Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. sydowii (Boerema, Kesteren & Loer.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. veronicae (Hollós) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Medicopsis romeroi (Borelli) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Nigrograna mackinnonii (Borelli) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Paraconiothyrium flavescens (Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. fuckelii (Sacc.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. fusco-maculans (Sacc.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. lini (Pass.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. tiliae (F. Rudolphi) Verkley & Gruyter, Paraleptosphaeria dryadis (Johanson) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. macrospora (Thüm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. nitschkei (Rehm ex G. Winter) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. orobanches (Schweinitz: Fr.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. praetermissa (P. Karst.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plenodomus agnitus (Desm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. biglobosus (Shoemaker & H. Brun) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. chrysanthemi (Zachos, Constantinou & Panag.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. collinsoniae (Dearn. & House) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. confertus (Niessl ex Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. congestus (M.T. Lucas) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. enteroleucus (Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. fallaciosus (Berl.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. hendersoniae (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. influorescens (Boerema & Loer.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. libanotidis (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. lindquistii (Frezzi) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. lupini (Ellis & Everh.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. pimpinellae (Lowen & Sivan.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. tracheiphilus (Petri) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. visci (Moesz) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Pleospora fallens (Sacc.) Gruyter & Verkley, Pleo. flavigena (Constantinou & Aa) Gruyter & Verkley, Pleo. incompta (Sacc. & Martelli) Gruyter & Verkley, Pyrenochaetopsis pratorum (P.R. Johnst. & Boerema) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplenodomus apiicola (Kleb.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. drobnjacensis (Bubák) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. valerianae (Henn.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. violicola (P. Syd.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Westerdykella capitulum (V.H. Pawar, P.N. Mathur & Thirum.) de Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, W. minutispora (P.N. Mathur ex Gruyter & Noordel.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley. New names: Pleospora angustis Gruyter & Verkley, Pleospora halimiones Gruyter & Verkley.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                30 March 2020
                : 66
                : 1-22
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente, sezione Patologia Vegetale, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 100, 95123 Catania, Italy University of Catania Catania Italy
                [2 ] Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Franz Schwackhöfer Haus, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82/I, 1190 Vienna, Austria University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Austria
                [3 ] Division of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Wien, Austria University of Vienna Vienna Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dalia Aiello ( dalia.aiello@ 123456unict.it )

                Academic editor: N. Wijayawardene

                Article
                48389
                10.3897/mycokeys.66.48389
                7136304
                Dalia Aiello, Alessandro Vitale, Giancarlo Polizzi, Hermann Voglmayr

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Ascomycota
                Identification Key
                Molecular Systematics
                Europe

                Comments

                Comment on this article