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      Development of Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease-like uveitis during treatment by anti-programmed death-1 antibody: a case report

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          Abstract

          Background

          Several immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been linked to the occurrence of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKHD)-like uveitis. Among the ICIs, there has been no report of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) caused by a new programmed death protein-1(PD-1) monoclonal antibody (Toripalimab).

          Case presentation

          This paper presents a case of VKHD-like uveitis that arose following Toripalimab therapy for urothelial cancer of the bladder, and the patient experienced symptoms 10 days after the final dosage of 20 months of medication treatment. This patient with bladder uroepithelial carcinoma had severe binocular acute panuveitis with exudative retinal detachment after receiving Toripalimab therapy. Binocular VKHD-like uveitis was suggested as a diagnosis. Both eyes recovered after discontinuing immune checkpoint inhibitors and local and systemic corticosteroid treatment.

          Conclusions

          This report suggests that VKHD-like uveitis can also occur in patients receiving novel PD-1 antibodies and the importance of paying attention to eye complications in patients receiving treatment over a long period.

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          Most cited references10

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          Managing toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: consensus recommendations from the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Toxicity Management Working Group

          Cancer immunotherapy has transformed the treatment of cancer. However, increasing use of immune-based therapies, including the widely used class of agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors, has exposed a discrete group of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Many of these are driven by the same immunologic mechanisms responsible for the drugs’ therapeutic effects, namely blockade of inhibitory mechanisms that suppress the immune system and protect body tissues from an unconstrained acute or chronic immune response. Skin, gut, endocrine, lung and musculoskeletal irAEs are relatively common, whereas cardiovascular, hematologic, renal, neurologic and ophthalmologic irAEs occur much less frequently. The majority of irAEs are mild to moderate in severity; however, serious and occasionally life-threatening irAEs are reported in the literature, and treatment-related deaths occur in up to 2% of patients, varying by ICI. Immunotherapy-related irAEs typically have a delayed onset and prolonged duration compared to adverse events from chemotherapy, and effective management depends on early recognition and prompt intervention with immune suppression and/or immunomodulatory strategies. There is an urgent need for multidisciplinary guidance reflecting broad-based perspectives on how to recognize, report and manage organ-specific toxicities until evidence-based data are available to inform clinical decision-making. The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) established a multidisciplinary Toxicity Management Working Group, which met for a full-day workshop to develop recommendations to standardize management of irAEs. Here we present their consensus recommendations on managing toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s40425-017-0300-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: ASCO Guideline Update

            PURPOSE To increase awareness, outline strategies, and offer guidance on the recommended management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) therapy. METHODS A multidisciplinary panel of medical oncology, dermatology, gastroenterology, rheumatology, pulmonology, endocrinology, neurology, hematology, emergency medicine, nursing, trialists, and advocacy experts was convened to update the guideline. Guideline development involved a systematic literature review and an informal consensus process. The systematic review focused on evidence published from 2017 through 2021. RESULTS A total of 175 studies met the eligibility criteria of the systematic review and were pertinent to the development of the recommendations. Because of the paucity of high-quality evidence, recommendations are based on expert consensus. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations for specific organ system–based toxicity diagnosis and management are presented. While management varies according to the organ system affected, in general, ICPi therapy should be continued with close monitoring for grade 1 toxicities, except for some neurologic, hematologic, and cardiac toxicities. ICPi therapy may be suspended for most grade 2 toxicities, with consideration of resuming when symptoms revert ≤ grade 1. Corticosteroids may be administered. Grade 3 toxicities generally warrant suspension of ICPis and the initiation of high-dose corticosteroids. Corticosteroids should be tapered over the course of at least 4-6 weeks. Some refractory cases may require other immunosuppressive therapy. In general, permanent discontinuation of ICPis is recommended with grade 4 toxicities, except for endocrinopathies that have been controlled by hormone replacement. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines .
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              Toripalimab: the First Domestic Anti-Tumor PD-1 Antibody in China

              Toripalimab (Tuoyi™) is a selective, recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) developed by Shanghai Junshi Bioscience Co., Ltd. Toripalimab is able to bind to PD-1 and block the interaction with its ligands. The binding of toripalimab to PD-1 is mainly attributed to the heavy chain of the former and the FG loop of the latter. Toripalimab received a conditional approval in China for the treatment of melanoma (second-line) in December, 2018. It has also received approvals to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (first-line and third-line) and urothelial carcinoma (second-line) in 2021. Additionally, several orphan drug designations were granted to toripalimab by the US Food and Drug Administration. Toripalimab has exhibited primary anti-tumor effects in tumors such as melanoma, lung cancer, digestive tract tumors, hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors, neuroendocrine neoplasms, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. It showed a satisfactory anti-tumor effect and long-term survival benefits in Chinese melanoma patients, while the combination of axitinib with toripalimab exhibited an impressive result in metastatic mucosal melanoma. As a checkpoint inhibitor, toripalimab was generally well-tolerated in the enrolled patients. Due to different study populations, comparisons could not be made directly between toripalimab and other drugs in most cases. Nevertheless, the introduction of toripalimab may offer a valuable choice for decision-making in the treatment of tumors in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yuxiaobing1214@163.com
                Journal
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2415
                7 June 2024
                7 June 2024
                2024
                : 24
                : 240
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.506261.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0706 7839, Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, , Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, ; Beijing, China
                [2 ]Peking University Fifth School of Clinical Medicine, ( https://ror.org/02v51f717) Beijing, China
                Article
                3484
                10.1186/s12886-024-03484-9
                11157912
                38849786
                63eb0617-2972-48c2-a20b-93f957e0bbc9
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 19 October 2023
                : 15 May 2024
                Categories
                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2024

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                immune checkpoint inhibitors (icis),vogt-koyanagi-harada disease (vkhd)-like uveitis,immune-related adverse events (iraes),anti-pd-1 (toripalimab)

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