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      Blockchain for Internet of Underwater Things: State-of-the-Art, Applications, Challenges, and Future Directions

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          Abstract

          The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) has become widely popular in the past decade as it has huge prospects for the economy due to its applicability in various use cases such as environmental monitoring, disaster management, localization, defense, underwater exploration, and so on. However, each of these use cases poses specific challenges with respect to security, privacy, transparency, and traceability, which can be addressed by the integration of blockchain with the IoUT. Blockchain is a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) that consists of series of blocks chained up in chronological order in a distributed network. In this paper, we present a first-of-its-kind survey on the integration of blockchain with the IoUT. This paper initially discusses the blockchain technology and the IoUT and points out the benefits of integrating blockchain technology with IoUT systems. An overview of various applications, the respective challenges, and the possible future directions of blockchain-enabled IoUT systems is also presented in this survey, and finally, the work sheds light on the critical aspects of IoUT systems and will enable researchers to address the challenges using blockchain technology.

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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                SUSTDE
                Sustainability
                Sustainability
                MDPI AG
                2071-1050
                December 2022
                November 24 2022
                : 14
                : 23
                : 15659
                Article
                10.3390/su142315659
                63eb4f97-6e9b-44f0-9651-71099080f2b8
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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