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      Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens


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          Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

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          Most cited references32

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          Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay.

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            A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens.

            Cariogenic bacteria and periodontopathic bacteria are present in dental plaque as biofilms. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial effects of essential oils on the following oral bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. We tested manuka oil, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, lavandula oil, and romarinus oil and determined their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The essential oils inhibited the growth of the bacteria tested, manuka oil being the most effective. Minimum bactericidal concentration values showed that lavandula oil acts bacteriostatically, and the remaining oils, bactericidally. Periodontopathic bacterial strains tested were killed completely by exposure for 30 s to 0.2% manuka oil, tea tree oil or eucalyptus oil. Tea tree oil and manuka oil showed significant adhesion-inhibiting activity against P. gingivalis. All the essential oils tested inhibited the adhesion of S. mutans. This study showed that, among the essential oils tested, manuka oil and tea tree oil in particular had strong antibacterial activity against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. From the viewpoint of safety, we also examined the effects of these essential oils on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and found that, at a concentration of 0.2%, they had little effect on cultured cells.
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              Challenges to improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme.

              Chronic diseases and injuries are overtaking communicable diseases as the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. This rapidly changing global disease pattern is closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco and increased consumption of alcohol. These lifestyle factors also significantly impact on oral health, and oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world. Like all diseases, they affect primarily the disadvantaged and socially marginalised populations, causing severe pain and suffering, impairing function and impacting on quality of life. Traditional treatment of oral diseases is extremely costly even in industrialised countries and is unaffordable in most low and middle-income countries. The WHO global strategy for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases and the 'common risk factor approach' offer new ways of managing the prevention and control of oral diseases. This document outlines the current oral health situation and development trends at global level as well as WHO strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21 st century.

                Author and article information

                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil )
                March 2007
                : 40
                : 3
                : 349-356
                [04] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica
                [06] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia
                [07] Fortaleza CE orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Morfologia Brasil
                [05] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Saúde Comunitária
                [03] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Farmácia
                [02] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas
                [01] orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas
                S0100-879X2007000300010 S0100-879X(07)04000310

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 8

                SciELO Brazil

                Experimental Biology

                Oral pathogens,Antimicrobial activity,Essential oil,Lippia sidoides


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