The chemical composition of the essential oils and aromatic waters isolated from six Italian Anthemis maritima populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 122 and 100 chemical compounds were identified in the essential oils and the aromatic waters, respectively. The main compound classes represented in the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters. Multivariate chemometric techniques such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) were used to classify the samples according to the geographical origin. Statistical analysis allowed the attribution of the analyzed populations to different chemotype groups.