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      Hemodynamic Markers in the Anterior Circulation as Predictors of Recurrent Stroke in Patients With Intracranial Stenosis

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          Abstract

          Background and Purpose- Although aggressive medical therapy was superior to stenting in the SAMMPRIS trial (Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis), the stroke rate in the medical arm was still high. The aim of this study was to determine the association between hemodynamic markers (borderzone infarct pattern and impaired collateral flow on baseline imaging) and rates of recurrent stroke in patients treated medically in SAMMPRIS. Methods- This was a post hoc analysis of patients whose qualifying event for SAMMPRIS was an infarct in the territory of a stenotic middle cerebral artery or intracranial carotid artery. Infarcts were adjudicated as involving primarily internal or cortical borderzone territories, the core middle cerebral artery territory, or perforator territories, and collateral flow was assessed according to a standard scale (American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology). Log-rank tests and χ2 tests were performed to assess associations of infarct patterns and collateral flow with rates of recurrent stroke. Results- Of 101 patients who qualified, 14 of 53 (26.4%) with borderzone infarcts, 2 of 24 (8.3%) with core middle cerebral artery infarcts, and 3 of 24 (12.5%) with perforator infarcts had a recurrent stroke in the territory ( P=0.14 for comparing the 3 groups, P=0.052 for borderzone versus nonborderzone). Of 82 patients with collateral flow assessment, 30 of 43 (70%) with borderzone infarcts, 7 of 19 (37%) with core middle cerebral artery infarcts, and 11 of 20 (55%) with perforator infarcts had impaired collateral flow distal to the stenosis ( P=0.049). Patients with borderzone infarcts and impaired collateral flow had the highest risk of recurrent stroke (37%). Conclusions- Borderzone infarcts and impaired collateral flow identify a subgroup of patients with intracranial stenosis who are at particularly high risk of recurrent stroke on medical treatment. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00576693.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis.

          Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis is an important cause of stroke that is increasingly being treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to prevent recurrent stroke. However, PTAS has not been compared with medical management in a randomized trial. We randomly assigned patients who had a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke attributed to stenosis of 70 to 99% of the diameter of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management alone or aggressive medical management plus PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system. The primary end point was stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during the follow-up period or stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. Enrollment was stopped after 451 patients underwent randomization, because the 30-day rate of stroke or death was 14.7% in the PTAS group (nonfatal stroke, 12.5%; fatal stroke, 2.2%) and 5.8% in the medical-management group (nonfatal stroke, 5.3%; non-stroke-related death, 0.4%) (P=0.002). Beyond 30 days, stroke in the same territory occurred in 13 patients in each group. Currently, the mean duration of follow-up, which is ongoing, is 11.9 months. The probability of the occurrence of a primary end-point event over time differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P=0.009), with 1-year rates of the primary end point of 20.0% in the PTAS group and 12.2% in the medical-management group. In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, aggressive medical management was superior to PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system, both because the risk of early stroke after PTAS was high and because the risk of stroke with aggressive medical therapy alone was lower than expected. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00576693.).
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            Large artery intracranial occlusive disease: a large worldwide burden but a relatively neglected frontier.

            Large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD) is a common and important stroke subtype. In this commentary, we review key epidemiological aspects of LAICOD. LAICOD has emerged as the most common stroke subtype worldwide and is associated with a high risk of recurrent stroke. Hypotheses have been proposed to explain causation, which include such factors as traditional cardiovascular risk factors, high blood volume states, and genetic abnormalities. Approaches to treatment such as antithrombotic therapies, revascularization procedures, and counterpulsation devices hold promise. LAICOD poses a major stroke problem worldwide and is likely the most common stroke subtype. The etiology and treatment of this disorder remain poorly defined. International collaborations are needed to pool collective knowledge and develop definitive studies to better understand causation and treatment of LAICOD.
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              Predictors of ischemic stroke in the territory of a symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis.

              Antithrombotic therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis was recently evaluated in the Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. A prespecified aim of WASID was to identify patients at highest risk for stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery who would be the target group for a subsequent trial comparing intracranial stenting with medical therapy. WASID was a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter trial involving 569 patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke due to 50% to 99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Median time from qualifying event to randomization was 17 days, and mean follow-up was 1.8 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with subsequent ischemic stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery. Subsequent ischemic stroke occurred in 106 patients (19.0%); 77 (73%) of these strokes were in the territory of the stenotic artery. Risk of stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery was highest with severe stenosis > or =70% (hazard ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 3.22; P=0.0025) and in patients enrolled early ( or =70%, after recent symptoms, and in women.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stroke
                Stroke
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0039-2499
                1524-4628
                January 2019
                January 2019
                : 50
                : 1
                : 143-147
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (A.M.W., T.N.T., M.I.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, Ralph H Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC (A.M.W.).
                [3 ]Departments of Radiology, Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (C.P.D.)
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York, Stony Brook (D.J.F.)
                [5 ]Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (M.J.L., G.A.C.)
                [6 ]Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles (D.S.L.)
                [7 ]Department of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (M.F.W.)
                [8 ]Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (H.L.)
                [9 ]Neurology Department, Stroke Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), Oviedo, Spain (E.L.-C.)
                [10 ]Department of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (J.M.)
                [11 ]Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (L.S.J.)
                [12 ]Piedmont Research Institute, Piedmont Healthcare, Atlanta, GA (B.L.)
                Article
                10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.020840
                6559874
                30580705
                © 2019

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