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      Natural Leishmania ( Viannia) infections of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Guiana Shield, Brazil Translated title: L’infection naturelle de phlébotomes (Diptera, Psychodidae) par Leishmania ( Viannia) révèle l’existence de cycles classique et alternatif de transmission de la leishmaniose cutanée sur le plateau des Guyanes au Brésil

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          From 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (Center of Diseases Control, CDC) light traps, light-baited Shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases) were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the “Serra do Navio” region of the Brazilian State of Amapá, which is part of the Guiana Shield. Fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. The following species, associated with the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, were captured: Nyssomyia umbratilis (3,388) , Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis (995) , Ny. anduzei (550) , Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (400) , Ny. whitmani (291), Ps. paraensis (116), and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (50). Flagellate infections were detected in 45 flies. Of the 19 parasites isolated in vitro, 15 were Leishmania ( Viannia) guyanensis (13 in Ny. umbratilis, 1 in Ny. whitmani, 1 in Ny. anduzei) and three were L. ( V.) naiffi (2 in Ps. s. maripaensis, 1 in Ny. anduzei) . The results indicate the participation of three phlebotomine species in the transmission of L. ( V.) guyanensis and two species in that of L. ( V.) naiffi, and show that the same phlebotomine species is involved in the transmission of different Leishmania (Viannia) species in the Guianan/Amazon region. A review of the literature together with the results of the present study, and other published and unpublished results, indicate that eight phlebotomine species potentially participate in the transmission of Leishmania ( Viannia) naiffi in Amazonia.

          Translated abstract

          De 1996 à 1999 plusieurs méthodes de piégeage (pièges lumineux CDC, pièges Shannon et aspirations à la base des arbres) ont été utilisées afin d’étudier les populations de phlébotomes de la région “Serra do Navio” dans l’état brésilien de l’Amapà, qui fait partie du plateau des Guyanes. Cinquante-trois espèces ont été identifiées parmi les 8,685 individus capturés. Plusieurs espèces associées à la transmission de la leishmaniose cutanée américaine en Amazonie brésilienne ont été capturées : Nyssomyia umbratilis (3,388) , Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis (995) , Ny. anduzei (550) , Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (400) , Ny. whitmani (291), Ps. paraensis (116) et Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (50). L’infection par des flagellés a été détectée chez quarante-cinq individus. Parmi les 19 isolés in vitro, 15 étaient Leishmania ( Viannia) guyanensis (13 chez Ny. umbratilis, 1 chez Ny. whitmani, 1 chez Ny. anduzei) et trois étaient L. ( V.) naiffi (2 chez Ps. s. maripaensis, 1 chez Ny. anduzei) . Ces résultats indiquent l’implication de trois espèces de phlébotomes dans la transmission de L. ( V.) guyanensis et de deux espèces dans la transmission de L. ( V.) naiffi et montrent que la même espèce de phlébotome est impliquée dans la transmission de plusieurs espèces de Leishmania (Viannia) dans la région guyano-amazonienne. Une revue de la littérature associée aux résultats de la présente étude et à des résultats publiés et non publiés montre que 8 espèces de phlébotomes participent potentiellement à la transmission de Leishmania ( Viannia) naiffi en Amazonie.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review.

           R Killick (1989)
          An account is given of work published during the past 10 years incriminating species of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of Leishmania species which infect man. An assessment is made of the degrees of certainty of the vectorial roles of eighty-one species and subspecies of sandflies (thirty-seven Old World and forty-four New World) in the transmission of twenty-nine leishmanial parasites of mammals. At least one species of sandfly is considered to be a proven vector of each of ten parasites. Of the eighty-one sandfly taxa, evidence is judged to be sufficient to incriminate nineteen as proven vectors (eleven Phlebotomus species and eight Lutzomyia species or subspecies) and evidence for a further fourteen (nine Phlebotomus species and five Lutzomyia species or subspecies) is considered to be strong. The suggested criteria for incrimination of a vector are anthropophily and common infection with the same leishmanial parasite as that found in man in the same place. More weight should be given to natural infections persisting after the digestion of a bloodmeal than those in the presence of blood. Supporting evidence is a concordance in the distribution of the fly and the disease in man, proof that the fly feeds regularly on the reservoir host, a flourishing development of the parasite in infected flies and the experimental transmission of the parasite by the bite of the fly.
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              Proven and putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.

              The aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The disease, due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the Brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. A variety of Leishmania species can be found in the Amazon basin, where different epidemiological chains have been detected with the participation of different phlebotomine vectors. Finally, a discussion is presented on some sand fly species found naturally infected by Leishmania, but for which there is as yet no evidence regarding their epidemiological importance.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                15 May 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                [1 ] Seção de Parasitologia, Instituto Evandro Chagas (Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde) Ananindeua zip code 67.030-000 Pará State Brazil
                [2 ] Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal do Pará Belém zip code 66055-240 Pará State Brazil
                [3 ] Département de Médecine, Ecosystèmes Amazoniens et Pathologie Tropicale, EA 3593, Labex CEBA, Université de Guyane zip code 97300 Cayenne French Guiana
                [4 ] Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo zip code 05508-000 São Paulo Brazil
                Author notes

                In memoriam.

                [* ]Corresponding author: thiagovasconcelos@ 123456iec.pa.gov.br
                parasite170038 10.1051/parasite/2017016
                © A.A.A. de Souza et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 74, Pages: 13
                Research Article

                guiana shield, leishmania, natural infection, phlebotomine


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