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      Evaluation of Fibrin-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

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          Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO). First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts. We further evaluated their biocompatibility ex vivo with a chick embryo organotypic culture model. Subcutaneous implantations of the matrices were subsequently conducted on nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. Our preliminary data highlighted that our biomaterials were non-cytotoxic (viability above 90%). The organotypic culture showed that the IPN matrices induced higher cell adhesion (across all the explanted organ tissues) and migration (skin, intestine) than the control groups, suggesting the advantages of using a biomimetic, yet mechanically-reinforced IPN-based matrix. We observed no major inflammatory response up to 12 weeks post implantation. All together, these data suggest that these fibrin-based IPNs are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering.

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                Author and article information

                [1 ]Laboratoire de BioMécanique et de BioIngénierie (BMBI) UMR CNRS 7388, Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie of Compiègne (UTC), 60200 Compiègne, France; olfat.gsib@ (O.G.); jlcalanq@ (J.-L.D.)
                [2 ]Equipe de Recherche sur les Relations Matrice Extracellulaire Cellules (Errmece), Institut des Matériaux, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise, France; mathieu.goczkowski@ (M.G.); mdeneufchatel@ (M.D.); veronique.larreta-garde@ (V.L.-G.)
                [3 ]Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymères et des Interfaces (LPPI), Institut des Matériaux, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise, France; odile.fichet@
                [4 ]School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
                [5 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: s.bencherif@ (S.A.B.); christophe.egles@ (C.E.); Tel.: +1-617-373-7103 (S.A.B.); +33-(0)3-44-23-44-22 (C.E.)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                10 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 7
                : 12
                29232876 5746926 10.3390/nano7120436 nanomaterials-07-00436
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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