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      Simvastatin prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy through modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway

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          Abstract

          Simvastatin (SIM) is a lipid-soluble inhibitor of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase with multiple reported therapeutic benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with SIM on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g were divided into four groups. Groups I and III received normal saline while groups II and IV received SIM (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days per gavage. In the last 7 days, rats of groups III and IV were administered ISO (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Administration of ISO induced an increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio, an increase in serum interleukin-6, and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Serum levels of lipids, cardiovascular risk indices, and cardiac troponin I and creatine phosphokinase-MB showed significant increase in ISO-induced hypertrophic rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue revealed focal areas of subendocardium degeneration, mononuclear cellular infiltrations, fibrous tissue deposition, and increased thickness of the myocardium of left ventricle. In addition, ISO-administered rats exhibited significant upregulation of cardiac Janus kinase, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription, and nuclear factor-kappa B. Pretreatment with SIM significantly prevented ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, alleviated the altered biochemical parameters, and improved the heart architecture. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that SIM prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy via modulation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-signaling pathway in the heart of ISO-administered animals.

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          ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).

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            Left ventricular hypertrophy: pathogenesis, detection, and prognosis.

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              Risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in Africa: the INTERHEART Africa study.

              Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in low-income countries. However, the impact of modifiable CVD risk factors on myocardial infarction (MI) has not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Therefore, we conducted a case-control study among patients with acute MI (AMI) in SSA to explore its association with known CVD risk factors. First-time AMI patients (n=578) were matched to 785 controls by age and sex in 9 SSA countries, with South Africa contributing approximately 80% of the participants. The relationships between risk factors and AMI were investigated in the African population and in 3 ethnic subgroups (black, colored, and European/other Africans) and compared with those found in the overall INTERHEART study. Relationships between common CVD risk factors and AMI were found to be similar to those in the overall INTERHEART study. Modeling of 5 risk factors (smoking history, diabetes history, hypertension history, abdominal obesity, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-1) provided a population attributable risk of 89.2% for AMI. The risk for AMI increased with higher income and education in the black African group in contrast to findings in the other African groups. A history of hypertension revealed higher MI risk in the black African group than in the overall INTERHEART group. Known CVD risk factors account for approximately 90% of MI observed in African populations, which is consistent with the overall INTERHEART study. Contrasting gradients found in socioeconomic class, risk factor patterns, and AMI risk in the ethnic groups suggest that they are at different stages of the epidemiological transition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                23 June 2015
                : 9
                : 3217-3229
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Physiology Division, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ayman M Mahmoud, Physiology Division, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-suef University, Salah Salim Street, 62514, Beni-Suef, Egypt, Email ayman.mahmoud@ 123456science.bsu.edu.eg
                Article
                dddt-9-3217
                10.2147/DDDT.S86431
                4484667
                © 2015 Al-Rasheed et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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