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      Reading-to-Writing Mediation model of higher-order literacy


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          Writing difficulties frequently manifest comorbidly with reading challenges, and reading is implicated in particular acts of writing, such as reviewing and editing. Despite what is known, however, there remain significant barriers to understanding the nature of reading-writing relations, as few studies are comprehensive in the number and types of literacy skills evaluated. This study consists of a secondary data analysis of two studies employing structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate relations among reading and writing components skills independently, using the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model (DIME) of reading comprehension and Not-so-Simple View of Writing (NSVW) as theoretical frameworks.


          We examine relations between reading and writing components from these models with a sample of upper elementary students with/at-risk for learning disabilities ( n = 405). Lower-order components included word reading, vocabulary, handwriting and spelling. Higher-order components included background knowledge, reading strategies, inferencing, planning, editing, and revision. The literacy outcomes were oral and silent reading fluency, reading comprehension, and writing quality and productivity. We systematically build a Reading-to-Writing Mediation (RWM) model by first merging the DIME and NSVW components in a direct effects model (Aim 1), expanding the joint model to include reading and writing fluency (Aim 2), evaluating indirect effects between DIME and NSVW component skills (Aim 3), and finally, evaluating indirect effects with reading and writing fluency (Aim 4).


          The findings suggest that higher order fluency and comprehension skills are differentially related to writing activities and products.


          The pattern of results helps elucidate the mechanisms of how various reading and writing skills transfer and relate. The results have implications for targeted and implicit instruction in multicomponent interventions and the use of screeners to identify areas of risk.

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          Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

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            Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability

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                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                30 June 2023
                : 14
                : 1033970
                [1] 1Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics, University of Houston , Houston, TX, United States
                [2] 2College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Houston Christian University , Houston, TX, United States
                [3] 3Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences Department, University of Houston , Houston, TX, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Giseli Donadon Germano, São Paulo State University, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan, MARA University of Technology, Malaysia; Erikson Saragih, University of North Sumatra, Indonesia

                *Correspondence: Yusra Ahmed, yusra.ahmed@ 123456times.uh.edu
                Copyright © 2023 Ahmed, Kent and Keller-Margulis.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 01 September 2022
                : 30 May 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 9, Equations: 0, References: 107, Pages: 26, Words: 19215
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                Educational Psychology

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                written expression,text writing,compositional fluency,reading comprehension,text reading fluency,learning disabilities


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