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      Knowledge about diabetic retinopathy, eye check-up practice and associated factors among adult patients with diabetes mellitus attending at debark hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Routine eye examination plays a vital role in detecting diabetic retinopathy in its earliest stage before the onset of blindness. Patients’ knowledge about the nature and the consequences of diabetic retinopathy and routine eye checkup helps for timely identification and early treatment. However, there is limited evidence on knowledge of patients with diabetes mellitus on diabetic retinopathy and their eye check-up practices in Ethiopia.

          The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about diabetic retinopathy, eye check-up practice and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy among adult diabetic patients at Debark hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

          Methods

          Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Debark hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from April 20/2018- May 20/2018. A pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 230 diabetic patients aged 18 years and above. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were done. Odds ratio with 95% confidence level was determined and variables with p–value of < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.

          Result

          Out of 238 sample 230 were participated, among this, 119 (51.7%) were males. The mean age of the respondents was 49 (SD ±17.6) years. One hundred nine (47.4%) participants had good knowledge and 91 (39.6%) had good eye check-up practice. Urban residence [AOR = 2.65;95% CI: 1.16–6.07)]), monthly income of 3501–8000 birr [AOR = 4.54;(1.31–15.7)], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 3.9;(1.6–9.6)], duration of diabetes (6–12 years [AOR = 4.4;(1.4–13.5)]), history of eye disease [AOR = 5.5;(2.3–13.0)] were associated with good knowledge. Similarly, longer duration of diabetes (13–25 years [AOR = 3.77; (1.05–13.5)]) and history of eye disease [AOR = 2.47; (1.09–5.62)] were associated with good eye check-up practice.

          Conclusion

          The proportion of good knowledge about diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Debark hospital was fair (47.4%) and good eye check-up practice (eye examination at least once in the past year) was low (39.6%). Longer duration of diabetes and history of eye disease were identified as positive factors for good knowledge and eye check-up practice. Knowledge and regular eye check-up practice needs to be enhanced through provision of appropriate health education.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12886-020-01730-4.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Guideline for conducting a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study

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            Awareness of eye diseases in an urban population in southern India.

            To assess the level of awareness of eye diseases in the urban population of Hyderabad in southern India. A total of 2522 subjects of all ages, who were representative of the Hyderabad population, participated in the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Of these subjects, 1859 aged > 15 years responded to a structured questionnaire on cataract, glaucoma, night blindness and diabetic retinopathy to trained field investigators. Having heard of the eye disease in question was defined as "awareness" and having some understanding of the eye disease was defined as "knowledge". Awareness of cataract (69.8%) and night blindness (60.0%) was moderate but that of diabetic retinopathy (27.0%) was low, while that of glaucoma (2.3%) was very poor. Knowledge of all the eye diseases assessed was poor. Subjects aged > or = 30 years were significantly more aware of all eye diseases assessed except night blindness. Multivariate analysis revealed that women were significantly less aware of night blindness (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.97). Education played a significant role in awareness of these eye diseases. Study subjects of upper socioeconomic status were significantly more aware of night blindness (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.29-3.74) and those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic strata were significantly more aware of diabetic retinopathy (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 2.19-3.56). Muslims were significantly more aware of cataract (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.84-3.02) and less aware of night blindness (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.42-0.64). The major source of awareness of the eye diseases was a family member/friend/relative suffering from that eye disease. These data suggest that there is a need for health education in this Indian population to increase their level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases. Such awareness and knowledge could lead to better understanding and acceptance of the importance of routine eye examinations for the early detection and treatment of eye diseases, thereby reducing visual impairment in this population.
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              Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Africa: a systematic review

              Abstract Aim To summarize findings from studies reporting the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy in African countries in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Methods Using a predefined search strategy, we systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation index and Conference Proceedings Citation index, African Index Medicus and the grey literature database ‘OpenSIGLE’ for studies published between January 1990 and February 2011. Included studies reported prevalence or incidence of diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy of subjects with diabetes resident in African countries. Results Sixty-two studies from 21 countries were included: three population-based surveys; two cohort studies; five case–control studies; 32 diabetes clinic-based, nine eye clinic-based and 11 other hospital-based surveys. Included studies varied considerably in terms of patient selection, method of assessing the eye and retinopathy classification. In population-based studies, the reported prevalence range in patients with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy was 30.2 to 31.6%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0.9 to 1.3%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 4.5%. In diabetes clinic-based surveys, the reported prevalence range for diabetic retinopathy was 7.0 to 62.4%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0 to 6.9%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 31.1%. No obvious association between prevalence and income level of the country was detected. Conclusions Large, community-based cross-sectional and cohort studies are needed to investigate rates and determinants of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, incidence and progression in Africa. Consensus is needed on the most appropriate methods of identification and classification of retinopathy for research and clinical practice. Estimates of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy are comparable with recent European and American studies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mebrieophta@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2415
                18 November 2020
                18 November 2020
                2020
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Felege Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Bahirdar City, Ethiopia
                [2 ]GRID grid.59547.3a, ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, Department of Optometry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, , University of Gondar, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                [3 ]GRID grid.59547.3a, ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, , University of Gondar, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                Article
                1730
                10.1186/s12886-020-01730-4
                7672967
                33208125
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Ophthalmology & Optometry

                ethiopia, diabetic retinopathy, knowledge, practice, debark

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