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      Dietary flavonoids, lignans and colorectal cancer prognosis

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          Abstract

          Flavonoids and lignans are polyphenol classes with anticarcinogenic activities against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, very limited epidemiological evidence exists on their effects on CRC prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between flavonoid and lignan intakes with the risk of CRC recurrence and overall survival in CRC patients. The study followed incident histologically confirmed CRC cases in Barcelona (Spain). Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at recruitment. An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Adjusted hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox models. After 8.6 years of mean follow-up, 133 of 409 (32.5%) participants died and 77 of 319 (24.1%) had a CRC recurrence. Total flavonoids were associated neither with CRC recurrence (HR comparing extreme tertiles 1.13, 95% CI 0.64–2.02; P-trend 0.67) nor with overall survival (HR T3vsT1 1.06, 95% CI 0.69–1.65; P-trend 0.78) in the multivariable models. No associations were also observed with either total lignans or any flavonoid subclass intake. In conclusion, the results of the current study do not support a role of flavonoid and lignan intake in the CRC prognosis.

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          Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

          Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.
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            Breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk in relation to phytoestrogen intake derived from an improved database.

            The characterization of phytoestrogen intake and cancer risk has been hindered by the absence of accurate dietary phytoestrogen values. We examined the risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers relative to phytoestrogen intake on the basis of a comprehensive database. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics, a medical history, and 7-d records of diet were collected prospectively from participants (aged 40-79 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Five hundred nine food items were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, and (13)C(3)-labeled internal standards were analyzed for isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein, biochanin A, and formononetin), lignans (secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol), and enterolignans from gut microbial metabolism in animal food sources (equol and enterolactone). From the direct analysis, values for 10,708 foods were calculated. Odds ratios (ORs) for breast (244 cases, 941 controls), colorectal (221 cases, 886 controls), and prostate (204 cases, 812 controls) cancers were calculated relative to phytoestrogen intake. Phytoestrogen intake was not associated with breast cancer among women or colorectal cancer among men. Among women, colorectal cancer risk was inversely associated with enterolactone (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) and total enterolignans (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.79), with a positive trend detected for secoisolariciresinol (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.96, 2.69). A positive trend between enterolignan intake and prostate cancer risk (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.66) was attenuated after adjustment for dairy intake (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.82). Dietary phytoestrogens may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer among women and prostate cancer among men.
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              Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

              Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                15 September 2015
                2015
                : 5
                : 14148
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biomarkers Group, Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) , Lyon, France
                [2 ]Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO)
                [3 ]Biomedical Research Institute of Bellvitge (IDIBELL)
                [4 ]CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) , Barcelona, Spain
                [5 ]Gastroenterology Service, Hospital de Viladecans , Barcelona, Spain
                [6 ]Gastroenterology Service, University Hospital Bellvitge (HUB)
                [7 ]Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona (UB) , Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Article
                srep14148
                10.1038/srep14148
                4572925
                26369380
                64383df8-a931-497a-92d1-7c19a4e80fa0
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 28 May 2015
                : 13 August 2015
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