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      The Effect Of Food On The Pharmacokinetic Properties And Bioequivalence Of Two Formulations Of Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride In Healthy Chinese Volunteers

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The aim of this study is to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic formulation and the branded formulation of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in healthy Chinese volunteers under fasting and fed conditions, and food-intake effect on the pharmacokinetic properties is also evaluated.

          Patients and methods

          Volunteers were randomly allocated into two groups to receive a single oral dose of generic formulation and branded formulation under fasting or fed conditions, respectively. Blood samples were collected at designated time points. Plasma concentrations of levocetirizine were determined by UFLC-MS/MS. Safety evaluations were carried out through the study. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the two formulations of levocetirizine were calculated using non-compartmental analysis incorporated in WinNonlin ® 7.0 software.

          Results

          Forty-nine volunteers were enrolled; 46 completed the studies. Under fasting and fed conditions, the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean of generic/branded ratios were in the range of 94.75–107.24% and 99.98–114.69% for the maximum observed concentration, and 97.13–102.50% and 98.36–103.98% for the area under the concentration–time curve. As a result of food intake before administration, the reduced rate and extent of absorption of levocetirizine were observed. Both formulations were generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse reactions reported.

          Conclusion

          The two formulations demonstrated essentially identical pharmacokinetic profiles and were all well within the FDA/CFDA bioequivalence standards. Meanwhile, food intake can delay the absorption rate and reduced the bioavailability of levocetirizine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Physiochemical and physiological mechanisms for the effects of food on drug absorption: the role of lipids and pH.

          Drugs are absorbed after oral administration as a consequence of a complex array of interactions between the drug, its formulation, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The presence of food within the GI tract impacts significantly on transit profiles, pH, and its solubilization capacity. Consequently, food would be expected to affect the absorption of co-administered drugs when their physicochemical properties are sensitive to these changes. The physicochemical basis by which ingested food/lipids induce changes in the GI tract and influence drug absorption are reviewed. The process of lipid digestion is briefly reviewed and considered in the context of the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The effect of food on GI pH is reviewed in terms of location (stomach, upper and lower small intestine) and the temporal relationship between pH and drug absorption. Case studies are presented in which postprandial changes in bioavailability are rationalized in terms of the sensitivity of the physicochemical properties of the administered drug to the altered GI environment.
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            Food, gastrointestinal pH, and models of oral drug absorption.

            This article reviews the major physiological and physicochemical principles of the effect of food and gastrointestinal (GI) pH on the absorption and bioavailability of oral drugs, and the various absorption models that are used to describe/predict oral drug absorption. The rate and extent of oral drug absorption is determined by a complex interaction between a drug's physicochemical properties, GI physiologic factors, and the nature of the formulation administered. GI pH is an important factor that can markedly affect oral drug absorption and bioavailability as it may have significant influence on drug dissolution & solubility, drug release, drug stability, and intestinal permeability. Different regions of the GI tract have different drug absorptive properties. Thus, the transit time in each GI region and its variability between subjects may contribute to the variability in the rate and/or extent of drug absorption. Food-drug interactions can result in delayed, decreased, increased, and sometimes un-altered drug absorption. Food effects on oral absorption can be achieved by direct and indirect mechanisms. Various models have been proposed to describe oral absorption ranging from empirical models to the more sophisticated "mechanism-based" models. Through understanding of the physicochemical and physiological rate-limiting factors affecting oral absorption, modellers can implement simplified population-based modelling approaches that are less complex than whole-body physiologically-based models but still capture the essential elements in a physiological way and hence will be more suited for population modelling of large clinical data sets. It will also help formulation scientists to better predict formulation performance and to develop formulations that maximize oral bioavailability.
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              Antihistaminic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiallergic Properties of the Nonsedating Second-Generation Antihistamine Desloratadine: A Review of the Evidence

              Abstract: The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions involved in allergic inflammation and immune modulation. Of the known histamine receptors, the H1-receptor is most clearly associated with potentiation of proinflammatory immune cell activity and enhanced effector function and is the prime focus of suppressive therapy. Second-generation oral H1-antihistamines, such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine, are mainstays of allergy treatment, acting as highly specific, long-acting H1-receptor agonists at its unique receptor. The ongoing identification of immune effector cells and mediators involved in the allergic cascade indicates that further research is necessary to define the role of antihistamines such as desloratadine in anti-inflammatory therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                18 October 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 3625-3634
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital , Fuzhou 350001, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University , Fuzhou 350004, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hong-Qiang Qiu; Xin-Feng Chen Department of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital , 29 Xin Quan Road, Gulou, Fuzhou350001, Fujian, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 591 8621 8591; +86 591 8621 8371Fax +86 591 8621 8591 Email hongqiangqiu@fjmu.edu.cn; fjxhcxf@163.com
                Article
                215316
                10.2147/DDDT.S215316
                6804673
                © 2019 Cheng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funded by: Fujian Science and Technology Innovation Joint Project
                This study was supported by the Fujian Science and Technology Innovation Joint Project (no. 2017Y9036) and Fujian Health and Family Planning Young and Middle-aged Talents Training Project (no. 2018-ZQN-35).
                Categories
                Original Research

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