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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Angiotensin II: a new therapeutic option for vasodilatory shock


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          Angiotensin II (Ang II), part of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAS), is a potent vasoconstrictor and has been recently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration in high-output shock. Though not a new drug, the recently published Angiotensin II for the Treatment of High Output Shock (ATHOS-3) trial, as well as a number of retrospective analyses have sparked renewed interest in the use of Ang II, which may have a role in treating refractory shock. We describe refractory shock, the unique mechanism of action of Ang II, RAS dysregulation in shock, and the evidence supporting the use of Ang II to restore blood pressure. Evidence suggests that Ang II may preferentially be of benefit in acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, where the RAS is known to be disrupted. Additionally, there may be a role for Ang II in cardiogenic shock, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor overdose, cardiac arrest, liver failure, and in settings of extracorporeal circulation.

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          Sepsis and acute kidney injury.

          Sepsis is a severe and dysregulated inflammatory response to infection characterized by end-organ dysfunction distant from the primary site of infection. Development of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis increases patient morbidity, predicts higher mortality, has a significant effect on multiple organ functions, is associated with an increased length of stay in the intensive care unit, and hence consumes considerable healthcare resources. When compared with AKI of nonseptic origin, septic AKI is characterized by a distinct pathophysiology and therefore requires a different approach. Despite impressive advances in several fields of medicine, the pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures, and appropriate therapeutic interventions in sepsis are still highly debatable. Numerous immunomodulatory agents showing promise in preclinical studies fail to reduce the overwhelmingly high mortality rate of sepsis and provoke AKI when compared with other critically ill patients. Major impediments to progress in understanding, early diagnosis, and application of appropriate therapeutic modalities in sepsis-induced AKI include limited histopathologic information, few animal models that closely mimic human sepsis, and a relative shortage of specific diagnostic tools. Here we discuss the most recent advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms of sepsis-induced AKI, characteristics of relevant animal models available, and potential therapies.
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            Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine.

            To develop consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients. A multidisciplinary, multispecialty task force of experts in critical care medicine was convened from the membership of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. In addition, international experts in endocrinology were invited to participate. The task force members reviewed published literature and provided expert opinion from which the consensus was derived. The consensus statements were developed using a modified Delphi methodology. The strength of each recommendation was quantified using the Modified GRADE system, which classifies recommendations as strong (grade 1) or weak (grade 2) and the quality of evidence as high (grade A), moderate (grade B), or low (grade C) based on factors that include the study design, the consistency of the results, and the directness of the evidence. The task force coined the term critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency to describe the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that occurs during critical illness. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency is caused by adrenal insufficiency together with tissue corticosteroid resistance and is characterized by an exaggerated and protracted proinflammatory response. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency should be suspected in hypotensive patients who have responded poorly to fluids and vasopressor agents, particularly in the setting of sepsis. At this time, the diagnosis of tissue corticosteroid resistance remains problematic. Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients is best made by a delta total serum cortisol of or = 7 days is recommended for septic shock. Methylprednisolone in a dose of 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for > or = 14 days is recommended in patients with severe early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Glucocorticoids should be weaned and not stopped abruptly. Reinstitution of treatment should be considered with recurrence of signs of sepsis, hypotension, or worsening oxygenation. Dexamethasone is not recommended to treat critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. The role of glucocorticoids in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, liver failure, pancreatitis, those undergoing cardiac surgery, and other groups of critically ill patients requires further investigation. Evidence-linked consensus statements with regard to the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid deficiency in critically ill patients have been developed by a multidisciplinary, multispecialty task force.
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              The pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock.


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                26 July 2018
                : 14
                : 1287-1298
                [1 ]Critical Care Pharmacy Specialist, Department of Pharmacy, Emory St Joseph’s Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Critical Care, Emory St Joseph’s Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA, laurence.w.busse@ 123456emory.edu
                [3 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, laurence.w.busse@ 123456emory.edu
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Laurence W Busse, Department of Critical Care, Emory St Joseph’s Hospital, 5665 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA, Tel +1 678 843 7273, Email laurence.w.busse@ 123456emory.edu
                © 2018 Bussard and Busse. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                catecholamine resistance,refractory shock
                catecholamine resistance, refractory shock


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