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      A new species of geckos of the genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 from Arunachal Pradesh, India

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      Evolutionary Systematics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          We here describe a new species of bent-toed geckos from the northeastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, which is widespread across the Dafla and Mishmi hills, occurring at elevations ranging from 179 m to 1400 m. The new species is recovered as sister to the Cyrtodactylus khasiensis clade based on a molecular phylogeny inferred from mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, subunit 2 gene. Intraspecific uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence (p-distance) for the new species was found to be between 0 and 5%, whereas the interspecific divergence from the closely-related congeners was between 19 and 30%. The new species can be differentiated from members of the C. khasiensis clade using a suite of morphological characters: moderate body size (SVL 64.9–81.7); 8–11 supralabials; 8–10 infralabials; 24–26 bluntly conical, feebly keeled dorsal tubercles; 50–60 paravertebral tubercles; ~38 ventral scales between ventrolateral folds; no precloacal groves; 6–10 precloacofemoral pores in a continuous series; 10–16 distal subdigital lamellae on IV of pes; subcaudal scalation of original tail without enlarged plates. This is the fourth reptile species described from Arunachal Pradesh from the expedition led by the team, and this further highlights the need for further herpetological investigations into the region.

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          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Two novel gene orders and the role of light-strand replication in rearrangement of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome

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              Multiple sequence alignment using ClustalW and ClustalX.

              The Clustal programs are widely used for carrying out automatic multiple alignment of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. The most familiar version is ClustalW, which uses a simple text menu system that is portable to more or less all computer systems. ClustalX features a graphical user interface and some powerful graphical utilities for aiding the interpretation of alignments and is the preferred version for interactive usage. Users may run Clustal remotely from several sites using the Web or the programs may be downloaded and run locally on PCs, Macintosh, or Unix computers. The protocols in this unit discuss how to use ClustalX and ClustalW to construct an alignment, and create profile alignments by merging existing alignments.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Evolutionary Systematics
                EvolSyst
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0730
                January 28 2021
                January 28 2021
                : 5
                : 1
                : 13-23
                Article
                10.3897/evolsyst.5.61667
                © 2021

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