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      Gene Transfer of Vasostatin, a Calreticulin Fragment, into Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells Results in Enhanced Malignant Behavior

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          Vasostatin, a fragment of calreticulin, was transfected in the BON cell line to evaluate the feasibility of using it for gene therapy in neuroendocrine tumors. Vasostatin transfected cells were subcutaneously inoculated in nude mice. Burkitt lymphoma cell line, CA46, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, SW480, as well as endothelial cells PAE and SVEC4 were used for evaluating the function of vasostatin. The results demonstrated that vasostatin transfer caused enhanced malignant behavior of neuroendocrine tumor cell line, BON. Cell adhesion, spreading and cellular invasion were also enhanced in vasostatin-expressing BON cells. Tumor suppressor genes including p53, nm23, Rb and vinculin were down-regulated. Moreover, cell cycle regulatory protein, p27kip1, and cell differentiation-related protein kinase, PKR, were also significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, expression of NKG2D ligands, MICA and MICB, were down-regulated. Mice implanted with vasostatin-expressing BON cells showed an earlier and faster tumor growth compared to wild type. Anti-proliferative effects of vasostatin could not be proven in other cells except in PAE. These results indicated that vasostatin does probably not have a tumor growth inhibitory effect by itself, but rather modulates processes which are necessary for tumor growth. Therefore, one should be very careful when using vasostatin as an anti-tumoral agent in clinical trials, at least for neuroendocrine tumors.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Roles of the NKG2D immunoreceptor and its ligands.

          According to present concepts, innate immunity is regulated by receptors that determine danger levels by responding to molecules that are associated with infection or cellular distress. NKG2D is, perhaps, the best characterized receptor that is associated with responses to cellular distress, defined as transformation, infection or cell stress. This review summarizes recent findings that concern NKG2D, its ligands, its signalling properties and its role in disease, and provides a framework for considering how the induction of immune responses can be regulated by cellular responses to injury.
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            The role of the NKG2D immunoreceptor in immune cell activation and natural killing.

            Little is known concerning the stimulatory receptors responsible for tumor cell lysis by NK cells. We generated a monoclonal antibody specific for murine NKG2D in order to investigate its function. Blocking of NKG2D inhibited natural cytotoxicity of all tumor cells tested that express ligands for the receptor. Staining analysis showed that NKG2D is also expressed by activated CD8(+) T cells and macrophages, and subsets of TCRgammadelta(+) and NK1.1(+) T cells. Contradicting reports that NKG2D is solely a costimulatory receptor, we observed that cross-linking of NKG2D directly stimulates NK cells and activated macrophages. In contrast, NKG2D costimulates activated CD8(+) T cells. Thus, NKG2D engagement directly stimulates NK cells and macrophages, costimulates CD8(+) T cells, and plays a substantial role in natural killing.
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              The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4.

              Macrophages are pivotal constituents of the innate immune system, vital for recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens. Macrophages use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns--including bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, and viral nucleic acids, such as double-stranded (ds)RNA--and in turn activate effector functions, including anti-apoptotic signalling pathways. Certain pathogens, however, such as Salmonella spp., Shigellae spp. and Yersiniae spp., use specialized virulence factors to overcome these protective responses and induce macrophage apoptosis. We found that the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, selectively induces apoptosis of activated macrophages through its lethal toxin, which prevents activation of the anti-apoptotic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We now demonstrate that macrophage apoptosis by three different bacterial pathogens depends on activation of TLR4. Dissection of anti- and pro-apoptotic signalling events triggered by TLR4 identified the dsRNA responsive protein kinase PKR as a critical mediator of pathogen-induced macrophage apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic actions of PKR are mediated both through inhibition of protein synthesis and activation of interferon response factor 3.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                January 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 82
                : 1
                : 1-10
                Endocrine Oncology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
                89749 Neuroendocrinology 2005;82:1–10
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 38, Pages: 10
                Original Paper


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