The hamster cheek pouch and its retractor muscle have provided valuable insights into microvascular physiology of an epithelial tissue and striated muscle, respectively. Nevertheless, the innervation of these vascular beds has not been resolved. This study has investigated the nature of autonomic and sensory innervation of these vascular beds and has tested whether it varies within or between tissues. Multiple-labelling immunohistochemistry identified autonomic and peptide-containing sensory nerve fibres. Presumptive sympathetic vasoconstrictor axons with immunoreactivity (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervated feed arteries and arterioles (but not veins or venules) of the retractor and anterior (muscular) cheek pouch; these axons were absent from the posterior (epithelial) region of the cheek pouch, as confirmed by catecholamine fluorescence. Presumptive autonomic vasodilator axons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) consistently innervated feed arteries and proximal arterioles of the cheek pouch, but generally not those of the retractor muscle nor distal arterioles of either tissue. Sparse presumptive sensory axons with IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P were found near arterial and venous vessels in all regions of the cheek pouch and retractor muscle; CGRP-IR was also located in motor end plates associated with striated muscle fibres. Such regional differences in vascular innervation by autonomic and sensory neurons may selectively effect local and regional control of blood flow between and within vascular beds.