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      The positive impact of general vitamin D food fortification policy on vitamin D status in a representative adult Finnish population: evidence from an 11-y follow-up based on standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D data.

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          Background: A systematic vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products and fat spreads was started in 2003 in Finland to improve vitamin D status. Objective: We investigated the effects of the vitamin D fortification policy on vitamin D status in Finland between 2000 and 2011.Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations of a nationally representative sample comprising 6134 and 4051 adults aged ≥30 y from the Health 2000 and Health 2011 surveys, respectively, were standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations.Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the mean S-25(OH)D increased from 48 nmol/L (95% CI: 47, 48 nmol/L) to 65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65, 66 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D supplement users increased from 11% to 41% (P < 0.001). When analyzing the effect of fortification of fluid milk products, we focused on supplement nonusers. The mean increase in S-25(OH)D in daily fluid milk consumers (n = 1017) among supplement nonusers was 20 nmol/L (95% CI: 19, 21 nmol/L), which was 6 nmol/L higher than nonconsumers (n = 229) (14 nmol/L; 95% CI: 12, 16 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). In total, 91% of nonusers who consumed fluid milk products, fat spreads, and fish based on Finnish nutrition recommendations reached S-25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L in 2011.Conclusions: The vitamin D status of the Finnish adult population has improved considerably during the time period studied. The increase is mainly explained by food fortification, especially of fluid milk products, and augmented vitamin D supplement use. Other factors, such as the difference in the ultraviolet radiation index between 2000 and 2011, may partly explain the results. When consuming vitamin D sources based on the nutritional recommendations, vitamin D status is sufficient [S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L], and supplementation is generally not needed.

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          Author and article information

          Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
          The American journal of clinical nutrition
          American Society for Nutrition
          May 10 2017
          [1 ] Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
          [2 ] Calcium Research Unit, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
          [3 ] Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
          [4 ] Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, and.
          [5 ] Department of Orthopedics, Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital and Kuopio Musculoskeletal Research Unit, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
          [6 ] Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; and.
          [7 ] Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland.
          [8 ] Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
          [9 ] Calcium Research Unit, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; christel.lamberg-allardt@helsinki.fi.


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