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      Epidemic spread of OXA-48 beta-lactamase in Croatia

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          Most cited references 33

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          Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases.

          Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these beta-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many beta-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D beta-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-beta-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type beta-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-beta-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of beta-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.
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            Rapid evolution and spread of carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae in Europe.

            Plasmid-acquired carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae, which were first discovered in Europe in the 1990s, are now increasingly being identified at an alarming rate. Although their hydrolysis spectrum may vary, they hydrolyse most β-lactams, including carbapenems. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, NDM and OXA-48 types. Their prevalence in Europe as reported in 2011 varies significantly from high (Greece and Italy) to low (Nordic countries). The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the cultural/population exchange relationship between the European countries and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. Although important nosocomial outbreaks with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been extensively reported, many new cases are still related to importation from a foreign country. Rapid identification of colonized or infected patients and screening of carriers is possible, and will probably be effective for prevention of a scenario of endemicity, as now reported for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (mainly CTX-M) producers in all European countries. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
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              The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.

              Fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. The traditional understanding that quinolone resistance is acquired only through mutation and transmitted only vertically does not entirely account for the relative ease with which resistance develops in exquisitely susceptible organisms, or for the very strong association between resistance to quinolones and to other agents. The recent discovery of plasmid-mediated horizontally transferable genes encoding quinolone resistance might shed light on these phenomena. The Qnr proteins, capable of protecting DNA gyrase from quinolones, have homologues in water-dwelling bacteria, and seem to have been in circulation for some time, having achieved global distribution in a variety of plasmid environments and bacterial genera. AAC(6')-Ib-cr, a variant aminoglycoside acetyltransferase capable of modifying ciprofloxacin and reducing its activity, seems to have emerged more recently, but might be even more prevalent than the Qnr proteins. Both mechanisms provide low-level quinolone resistance that facilitates the emergence of higher-level resistance in the presence of quinolones at therapeutic levels. Much remains to be understood about these genes, but their insidious promotion of substantial resistance, their horizontal spread, and their co-selection with other resistance elements indicate that a more cautious approach to quinolone use and a reconsideration of clinical breakpoints are needed.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                August 01 2018
                August 01 2018
                : 67
                : 8
                : 1031-1041
                [1 ] 1​School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia
                [2 ] 2​University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia
                [3 ] 3​Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM), Croatia
                [4 ] 4​University Hospital Center Split, Croatia
                [5 ] 5​Public Health Institute of Istria County, Pula, Croatia
                [6 ] 6​Public Health Institute of Osijek-Baranja County, Osijek, Croatia
                [7 ] 7​School of Medicine, University of Osijek, University Hospital Center Osijek, Croatia
                [8 ] 8​University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
                [9 ] 9​Public Health Institute Slavonski Brod, Croatia
                [10 ] 10​Department for Microbiology, General Hospital Karlovac, Croatia
                [11 ] 11​Children’s Hospital Zagreb, Croatia
                [12 ] 12​Institute for Microbiology, Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria
                [13 ] 13​University Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Zagreb, Croatia
                [14 ] 14​AIT, Austrian Institute for Technology, Vienna, Austria
                © 2018


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