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      Systems biology reveals anatabine to be an NRF2 activator


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          Anatabine, an alkaloid present in plants of the So lanaceae family (including tobacco and eggplant), has been shown to ameliorate chronic inflammatory conditions in mouse models, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, and intestinal inflammation. However, the mechanisms of action of anatabine remain unclear. To understand the impact of anatabine on cellular systems and identify the molecular pathways that are perturbed, we designed a study to examine the concentration-dependent effects of anatabine on various cell types by using a systems pharmacology approach. The resulting dataset, consisting of measurements of various omics data types at different time points, was analyzed by using multiple computational techniques. To identify concentration-dependent activated pathways, we performed linear modeling followed by gene set enrichment. To predict the functional partners of anatabine and the involved pathways, we harnessed the LINCS L1000 dataset’s wealth of information and implemented integer linear programming on directed graphs, respectively. Finally, we experimentally verified our key computational predictions. Using an appropriate luciferase reporter cell system, we were able to demonstrate that anatabine treatment results in NRF2 (nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2) translocation, and our systematic phosphoproteomic assays showed that anatabine treatment results in activation of MAPK signaling. While there are certain areas to be explored in deciphering the exact anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of anatabine and other NRF2 activators, we believe that anatabine constitutes an interesting molecule for its therapeutic potential in NRF2-related diseases.

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          Most cited references74

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            Gene set enrichment analysis: A knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles

            Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.
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              Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks.

              Cytoscape is an open source software project for integrating biomolecular interaction networks with high-throughput expression data and other molecular states into a unified conceptual framework. Although applicable to any system of molecular components and interactions, Cytoscape is most powerful when used in conjunction with large databases of protein-protein, protein-DNA, and genetic interactions that are increasingly available for humans and model organisms. Cytoscape's software Core provides basic functionality to layout and query the network; to visually integrate the network with expression profiles, phenotypes, and other molecular states; and to link the network to databases of functional annotations. The Core is extensible through a straightforward plug-in architecture, allowing rapid development of additional computational analyses and features. Several case studies of Cytoscape plug-ins are surveyed, including a search for interaction pathways correlating with changes in gene expression, a study of protein complexes involved in cellular recovery to DNA damage, inference of a combined physical/functional interaction network for Halobacterium, and an interface to detailed stochastic/kinetic gene regulatory models.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 November 2022
                : 13
                : 1011184
                PMI R&D , Philip Morris Products S.A , Neuchâtel, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Andrea Tarozzi, University of Bologna, Italy

                Reviewed by: Wei Jin, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, China

                Rong Hu, China Pharmaceutical University, China

                *Correspondence: Dimitris E. Messinis, di.messinis@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2022 Messinis, Poussin, Latino, Eb-Levadoux, Dulize, Peric, Guedj, Titz, Ivanov, Peitsch and Hoeng.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 03 August 2022
                : 24 October 2022
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                anatabine,nrf2 activator,nrf2 activation,nrf2 pathway,nrf2,hmox1,alkaloid,p38 mapk


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