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      PVF Velocity Pattern in Patients with Heart Failure: Transesophageal Echocardiographic Assessment

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          Abstract

          In order to assess the role of the pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity pattern in the evaluation of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we studied 41 CHF patients by means of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The etiology of CHF was idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in 19 patients and hypertensive heart disease in 22. Sixteen subjects without cardiovascular disease were selected as normal controls. PVF peak systolic and peak early diastolic (D) velocities were recorded by TEE and TTE and the systolic fraction (SF) was measured (i.e., the systolic velocity-time integral – VTI – expressed as a fraction of the sum of systolic and early diastolic VTI). TEE tracings were obtained in all patients and had more laminar-appearing spectral signals, thus were used for analysis. By TTE the mitral flow velocity patterns were also evaluated: peak early diastolic velocity (E), peak velocity at atrial contraction, E velocity normalized for VTI (E/VTI), deceleration time (DT), and left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (LVIRT). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by two-dimensional echocardiographic images using the modified Simpson method. The SF was lower in CHF patients as compared with normal controls (p < 0.0001). The E/VTI ratio was higher, and DT and LVIRT were shorter (p < 0.0001) in CHF patients. A significant correlation was observed between SF and LVEF in CHF patients (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Two different PVF velocity patterns (type A: SF < 0 50%, D > 50 cm/s; type B: SF ∼ 50%, D > 50 cm/s) were recognized in patients with a low LVEF (type A) and a nearly normal or normal LVEF (type B). Patients with LVEF < 40% showed mean SF values significantly lower than patients with LVEF > 40% (33.26 ± 10.84 vs. 51.00 ± 4.00%, p < 0.0001). Mean DT and LVIRT values were not significantly different in patients with LVEF < 40% and > 40%. Thus in CHF patients TEE PVF velocity patterns help in distinguishing patients with systolic dysfunction (low LVEF and SF) from patients with predominant diastolic impairment (normal or nearly normal LVEF, high D velocities).

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1997
          1997
          21 November 2008
          : 88
          : 6
          : 585-594
          Affiliations
          Cardiac Department, ‘La Sapienza’ University, Rome, Italy
          Article
          177431 Cardiology 1997;88:585–594
          10.1159/000177431
          9397316
          © 1997 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Noninvasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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