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      Interleukin-6 concentrations in umbilical cord plasma are elevated in neonates with white matter lesions associated with periventricular leukomalacia

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          Abstract

          Periventricular leukomalacia, a common brain white matter lesion in preterm neonates, is a major risk factor for cerebral palsy. Recently, cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1(beta)) have been implicated as mediators for the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between umbilical cord plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1(beta), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and the occurrence of periventricular leukomalacia in preterm neonates. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 172 consecutive preterm births (25 to 36 weeks). Periventricular leukomalacia-associated lesions were diagnosed by brain ultrasonography within the first 3 days of life. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1(beta) interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured by sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoassay methods. Umbilical cord arterial pH was measured at birth. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Periventricular leukomalacia-associated lesions were present in 14.5% (25/172) of infants. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 but not of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1(beta), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were significantly higher in neonates with periventricular leukomalacia-associated lesions than in those without these lesions (median 718, range < 226 to 32,000 pg/ml vs median < 226, range < 226 to 43,670 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). An interleukin-6 value > or = 400 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 72% (18/25) and a specificity of 74% (108/147) in the identification of periventricular leukomalacia-associated lesions. Multivariate analysis showed that umbilical cord interleukin-6 was an independent risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia (odds ratio 6.2, p < 0.002) after correction for known confounding variables (i.e., gestational age at birth, umbilical artery pH, chorioamnionitis). Interleukin-6 concentrations in umbilical cord plasma are elevated in neonates with periventricular leukomalacia-associated lesions. Our data support the hypothesis that periventricular leukomalacia may be the result of cytokine-mediated brain injury.

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          Activation of coagulation after administration of tumor necrosis factor to normal subjects.

          Tumor necrosis factor has been implicated in the activation of blood coagulation in septicemia, a condition commonly associated with intravascular coagulation and disturbances of hemostasis. To evaluate the early dynamics and the route of the in vivo coagulative response to tumor necrosis factor, we performed a controlled study in six healthy men, monitoring the activation of the common and intrinsic pathways of coagulation with highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor, administered as an intravenous bolus injection (50 micrograms per square meter of body-surface area), induced an early and short-lived rise in circulating levels of the activation peptide of factor X, reaching maximal values after 30 to 45 minutes (mean +/- SEM increase after 45 minutes, 34.2 +/- 18.2 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P = 0.015). This was followed by a gradual and prolonged increase in the plasma concentration of the prothrombin fragment F1+2, peaking after four to five hours (mean increase after five hours, 348.0 +/- 144.8 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P less than 0.0001). These findings signify the formation of factor Xa (activated factor X) and the activation of prothrombin. Activation of the intrinsic pathway could not be detected by a series of measurements of the plasma levels of factor XII, prekallikrein, factor XIIa-C1 inhibitor complexes, kallikrein-C1 inhibitor complexes, and the activation peptide of factor IX. The delay between the maximal activation of factor X and that of prothrombin amounted to several hours, indicating that neutralization of factor Xa activity was slow. We conclude that a single injection of tumor necrosis factor elicits a rapid and sustained activation of the common pathway of coagulation, probably induced through the extrinsic route. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor could play an important part in the early activation of the hemostatic mechanism in septicemia.
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            Antecedents of cerebral palsy. Multivariate analysis of risk.

            We examined prenatal and perinatal factors predicting cerebral palsy, using multivariate analysis to investigate which factors were most important and the proportion of cases for which they accounted. Maternal mental retardation, birth weight below 2001 g, and fetal malformation were among the leading predictors. Breech presentation was also a predictor, but breech delivery was not. A third of the children with cerebral palsy who had breech presentations had a major noncerebral malformation. Among 189 children with cerebral palsy, 40 (21 percent) had at least one of three clinical markers suggestive of asphyxia; only 17 of these 40 children (9 percent of all cases) lacked major congenital malformation or other intrinsic defects that might have contributed to an unfavorable outcome. When all the principal risk factors present by the time labor began were considered, the 5 percent of the population at highest estimated risk was seen to have contributed 34 percent of the cases. When all the risk factors present during the period beginning before pregnancy and extending through the nursery stay were included, the 5 percent at highest risk was seen to have contributed 37 percent of the cases. Thus, the inclusion of information about the events of birth and the neonatal period accounted for a proportion of cerebral palsy only slightly higher than that accounted for when consideration was limited to characteristics identified before labor began.
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              Quantitative Bacteriology of Amniotic Fluid from Women with Clinical Intraamniotic Infection at Term

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Elsevier BV
                00029378
                May 1996
                May 1996
                : 174
                : 5
                : 1433-1440
                Article
                10.1016/S0002-9378(96)70585-9
                9065108
                © 1996

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