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      The Associations of Parental Harsh Discipline, Adolescents’ Gender, and Grit Profiles With Aggressive Behavior Among Chinese Early Adolescents


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          Although the association between parental harsh discipline and aggressive behavior in adolescence has been well established, little attention has been paid to early adolescence. Moreover, the risk and protective factors (the interplay of parents’ and adolescents’ gender, the role of grit) in this association during this period are still less explored in the literature. Guided by a socioecological framework, the current study (more exploratory in nature) identified the grit profiles based on two dimensions (i.e., perseverance and consistency) in a sample of Chinese early adolescents; likewise, this study further investigated gender-specific patterns and the moderating role of grit profiles in the association between parental harsh discipline and aggressive behavior. A total of 1,156 Chinese early adolescents (46.5% girls) were involved in this study and completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of grit: low perseverance and low consistency, high perseverance and low consistency, and high perseverance and high consistency. Moreover, linear regression analysis indicated that paternal and maternal harsh discipline were each positively associated with aggressive behavior. The positive association between paternal harsh discipline and aggressive behavior was only significant for adolescent boys with low levels of perseverance and consistency; in contrast, the positive association between maternal harsh discipline and aggressive behavior was significantly stronger for adolescent boys with high levels of perseverance and consistency. These findings suggest that parental harsh discipline presents a risk factor for aggressive behavior, especially for adolescent boys in early adolescence; such a vulnerable effect is more heightened for those with low levels of perseverance and consistency. In addition, although grit is assumed to be a positive personal attribute, maternal harsh discipline to boys in the Chinese family context may disturb their positive development pathway during early adolescence, which is highly discouraged.

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          Development and validation of the short grit scale (grit-s).

          In this article, we introduce brief self-report and informant-report versions of the Grit Scale, which measures trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals. The Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) retains the 2-factor structure of the original Grit Scale (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007) with 4 fewer items and improved psychometric properties. We present evidence for the Grit-S's internal consistency, test-retest stability, consensual validity with informant-report versions, and predictive validity. Among adults, the Grit-S was associated with educational attainment and fewer career changes. Among adolescents, the Grit-S longitudinally predicted GPA and, inversely, hours watching television. Among cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, the Grit-S predicted retention. Among Scripps National Spelling Bee competitors, the Grit-S predicted final round attained, a relationship mediated by lifetime spelling practice.
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            Much Ado About Grit: A Meta-Analytic Synthesis of the Grit Literature.

            Grit has been presented as a higher order personality trait that is highly predictive of both success and performance and distinct from other traits such as conscientiousness. This paper provides a meta-analytic review of the grit literature with a particular focus on the structure of grit and the relation between grit and performance, retention, conscientiousness, cognitive ability, and demographic variables. Our results based on 584 effect sizes from 88 independent samples representing 66,807 individuals indicate that the higher order structure of grit is not confirmed, that grit is only moderately correlated with performance and retention, and that grit is very strongly correlated with conscientiousness. We also find that the perseverance of effort facet has significantly stronger criterion validities than the consistency of interest facet and that perseverance of effort explains variance in academic performance even after controlling for conscientiousness. In aggregate our results suggest that interventions designed to enhance grit may only have weak effects on performance and success, that the construct validity of grit is in question, and that the primary utility of the grit construct may lie in the perseverance facet. (PsycINFO Database Record
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              Classical Latent Profile Analysis of Academic Self-Concept Dimensions: Synergy of Person- and Variable-Centered Approaches to Theoretical Models of Self-Concept


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 March 2020
                : 11
                : 323
                [1] 1Department of Psychology, School of Education, Wenzhou University , Wenzhou, China
                [2] 2Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University , Beijing, China
                [3] 3Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padova , Padua, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hui Li, Macquarie University, Australia

                Reviewed by: Fanli Jia, Seton Hall University, United States; Ugo Pace, Kore University of Enna, Italy

                This article was submitted to Developmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2020 Cui and Lan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 17 December 2019
                : 11 February 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 75, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                paternal harsh discipline,maternal harsh discipline,aggressive behavior,gender differences,grit,early adolescence


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