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      Antiepileptic and anesthetic drugs in the intensive care unit. Their impact on non-convulsive status epilepticus mortality Translated title: Drogas antiepilépticas y anestésicas en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Su impacto en la mortalidad en el estado de mal epiléptico no convulsivo


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          Abstract Background: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) can only be diagnosed by electroencephalogram (EEG) because the motor clinical symptoms are usually subtle or absent, with high mortality. The best treatment is still unknown. Objectives: Our aim was to assess anticonvulsive and anesthetic drugs in NCSE and their correlation with Epidemiology-based Mortality Score in Status Epilepticus (EMSE), Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and mortality. Methods: Retrospective, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Ninety patients in intensive care unit over 18 years-old (57 females [63.3%] and 33 males [36.6%], mean age 63.5 years [SD ± 19]) with NCSE, at the Buenos Aires British Hospital. Data was collected between January 2018 and June 2021. An adjusted mul tivariate statistical analysis was performed. Ninety-five (95%) CI, p<0.05 as statistically significant. EMSE and STESS were used in this study. Results: Total mortality rate was 37.8% (34/90), and in patients ≥ 65 years-old (54/90) it was 40.7% (22/54). Patients with 0-2 STESS (11/90) were discharged, while those with STESS ≥ 3 (79/90) had a 43% death rate (34/79). Patients with EMSE < 34 (27/90) had 7.4% (2/27) death rate, while those with EMSE ≥ 34 (63/90) had 50.8% (32/63). No significant differences were found in survival with regard to the number of antiepileptic drugs administered. Pa tients treated with anesthetics presented a 2.6-fold death risk increase (95% CI 1.001-6.83). Discussion: It could be assumed that mortality rate increases 2.6-fold when patients are treated with anes thetic drugs, regardless of the number of antiepileptic drugs previously administered.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Introducción: El estado de mal epiléptico (SE) es una emergencia neurológica. El SE no convulsivo (SENC) se diagnostica únicamente por electroencefalograma de bido a la ausencia o sutileza de sintomatología clínica motora, con una mortalidad elevada. No se conoce aún el mejor tratamiento. Objetivos: Evaluar drogas anticonvulsivas y anestési cas en el SENC y su correlación con Epidemiology-based Mortality Score in Status Epilepticus (EMSE), Status Epilep ticus Severity Score (STESS) y el índice de mortalidad. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de scriptivo, de corte transversal. Noventa pacientes ≥ 18 años (57 mujeres [63.3%] y 33 hombres [36.6%], media de edad 63.5 años [DS ± 19]) con diagnóstico de SENC, en el Hospital Británico. Estudio realizado entre enero 2018 y junio 2021. Análisis estadístico multivariado ajustado. IC 95% p< 0.05 como estadísticamente significativo. Se utilizaron escalas de EMSE y STESS. Resultados: La mortalidad total fue de 37.8% (34/90). Los pacientes ≥ 65 años (54/90) presentaron una mayor tasa de muerte 40.7% (22/54), todos aquellos con STESS de 0-2 (11/90) egresaron, mientras que entre los que presentaron ≥ 3 (79/90) el 43% (34/79) falleció. De los pacientes con EMSE < 34 (27/90) dos fallecieron (7.4%) y de aquellos con EMSE ≥ 34 (63/90) falleció el 50.8% (32/63). No hallamos diferencias significativas entre cantidad de drogas antiepilépticas utiliza das y supervivencia. Pacientes con anestésicos tuvieron un aumento del riesgo de muerte 2.6 veces (IC 95% 1.001-6.83). Discusión: De acuerdo a esto la mortalidad con drogas anestésicas aumenta, independientemente de la cantidad de drogas anticonvulsivas utilizadas previamente.

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          Most cited references40

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          A definition and classification of status epilepticus--Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification of Status Epilepticus.

          The Commission on Classification and Terminology and the Commission on Epidemiology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) have charged a Task Force to revise concepts, definition, and classification of status epilepticus (SE). The proposed new definition of SE is as follows: Status epilepticus is a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1 ). It is a condition, which can have long-term consequences (after time point t2 ), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures. This definition is conceptual, with two operational dimensions: the first is the length of the seizure and the time point (t1 ) beyond which the seizure should be regarded as "continuous seizure activity." The second time point (t2 ) is the time of ongoing seizure activity after which there is a risk of long-term consequences. In the case of convulsive (tonic-clonic) SE, both time points (t1 at 5 min and t2 at 30 min) are based on animal experiments and clinical research. This evidence is incomplete, and there is furthermore considerable variation, so these time points should be considered as the best estimates currently available. Data are not yet available for other forms of SE, but as knowledge and understanding increase, time points can be defined for specific forms of SE based on scientific evidence and incorporated into the definition, without changing the underlying concepts. A new diagnostic classification system of SE is proposed, which will provide a framework for clinical diagnosis, investigation, and therapeutic approaches for each patient. There are four axes: (1) semiology; (2) etiology; (3) electroencephalography (EEG) correlates; and (4) age. Axis 1 (semiology) lists different forms of SE divided into those with prominent motor systems, those without prominent motor systems, and currently indeterminate conditions (such as acute confusional states with epileptiform EEG patterns). Axis 2 (etiology) is divided into subcategories of known and unknown causes. Axis 3 (EEG correlates) adopts the latest recommendations by consensus panels to use the following descriptors for the EEG: name of pattern, morphology, location, time-related features, modulation, and effect of intervention. Finally, axis 4 divides age groups into neonatal, infancy, childhood, adolescent and adulthood, and elderly.
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            The treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus: a critical review of available therapies and a clinical treatment protocol.

            Super-refractory status epilepticus is defined as status epilepticus that continues or recurs 24 h or more after the onset of anaesthetic therapy, including those cases where status epilepticus recurs on the reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. It is an uncommon but important clinical problem with high mortality and morbidity rates. This article reviews the treatment approaches. There are no controlled or randomized studies, and so therapy has to be based on clinical reports and opinion. The published world literature on the following treatments was critically evaluated: anaesthetic agents, anti-epileptic drugs, magnesium infusion, pyridoxine, steroids and immunotherapy, ketogenic diet, hypothermia, emergency resective neurosurgery and multiple subpial transection, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagal nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid and other older drug therapies. The importance of treating the identifying cause is stressed. A protocol and flowchart for managing super-refractory status epilepticus is suggested. In view of the small number of published reports, there is an urgent need for the establishment of a database of outcomes of individual therapies.
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              Intramuscular versus intravenous therapy for prehospital status epilepticus.

              Early termination of prolonged seizures with intravenous administration of benzodiazepines improves outcomes. For faster and more reliable administration, paramedics increasingly use an intramuscular route. This double-blind, randomized, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy of intramuscular midazolam with that of intravenous lorazepam for children and adults in status epilepticus treated by paramedics. Subjects whose convulsions had persisted for more than 5 minutes and who were still convulsing after paramedics arrived were given the study medication by either intramuscular autoinjector or intravenous infusion. The primary outcome was absence of seizures at the time of arrival in the emergency department without the need for rescue therapy. Secondary outcomes included endotracheal intubation, recurrent seizures, and timing of treatment relative to the cessation of convulsive seizures. This trial tested the hypothesis that intramuscular midazolam was noninferior to intravenous lorazepam by a margin of 10 percentage points. At the time of arrival in the emergency department, seizures were absent without rescue therapy in 329 of 448 subjects (73.4%) in the intramuscular-midazolam group and in 282 of 445 (63.4%) in the intravenous-lorazepam group (absolute difference, 10 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 16.1; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority). The two treatment groups were similar with respect to need for endotracheal intubation (14.1% of subjects with intramuscular midazolam and 14.4% with intravenous lorazepam) and recurrence of seizures (11.4% and 10.6%, respectively). Among subjects whose seizures ceased before arrival in the emergency department, the median times to active treatment were 1.2 minutes in the intramuscular-midazolam group and 4.8 minutes in the intravenous-lorazepam group, with corresponding median times from active treatment to cessation of convulsions of 3.3 minutes and 1.6 minutes. Adverse-event rates were similar in the two groups. For subjects in status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam is at least as safe and effective as intravenous lorazepam for prehospital seizure cessation. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00809146.).

                Author and article information

                Medicina (Buenos Aires)
                Medicina (B. Aires)
                Fundación Revista Medicina (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                June 2023
                : 83
                : 2
                : 202-211
                [1] orgnameHospital Británico orgdiv1Servicio de Neurología Argentina
                S0025-76802023000400202 S0025-7680(23)08300200202

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 05 May 2022
                : 17 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 10

                SciELO Argentina

                Original articles

                Anesthetic drugs,Anti epileptic drugs,Non convulsive status epilepticus,Drogas anestésicas,Drogas antiepilépticas,Estado de mal epiléptico no convul sivo


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