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      A critical review on serine protease: Key immune manipulator and pathology mediator

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          Abstract

          Proteolytic activity is fundamental to survival, so it is not surprising that all living organisms have proteases, especially seine protease. This enzyme in its numerous isoforms and homologues, constitutes the quintessential offence and defence factors, in the form of surface proteins, secreted molecules, gut digestive enzymes, venom in specialised glands or plant latex, among other manifestations. Occurring as trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, collagenase, thrombin, subtilisin etc., it mediates a diverse array of functions, including pathological roles as inflammatory, coagulatory to haemorrhagic. This review emphasizes that despite the superficial differences in mechanisms, most health issues, be they infectious, allergic, metabolic, or neural have a common conduit. This enzyme, in its various glycosylated forms leads to signal misinterpretations, wreaking havoc. However, organisms are endowed with serine protease inhibitors which might restrain this ubiquitous yet deleterious enzyme. Hence, serine proteases-driven pathogenesis and antagonising role of inhibitors is the focal point of this critical review.

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          Overview of Complement Activation and Regulation

          Summary Complement is an important component of the innate immune system that is crucial for defense from microbial infections and for clearance of immune complexes and injured cells. In normal conditions complement is tightly controlled by a number of fluid-phase and cell surface proteins to avoid injury to autologous tissues. When complement is hyperactivated, as occurs in autoimmune diseases or in subjects with dysfunctional regulatory proteins, it drives a severe inflammatory response in numerous organs. The kidney appears to be particularly vulnerable to complement-mediated inflammatory injury. Injury may derive from deposition of circulating active complement fragments in glomeruli, but complement locally produced and activated in the kidney also may have a role. Many kidney disorders have been linked to abnormal complement activation, including immune-complex–mediated glomerulonephritis and rare genetic kidney diseases, but also tubulointerstitial injury associated with progressive proteinuric diseases or ischemia-reperfusion.
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            Epigenetics: the link between nature and nurture.

            While the eukaryotic genome is the same throughout all somatic cells in an organism, there are specific structures and functions that discern one type of cell from another. These differences are due to the cell's unique gene expression patterns that are determined during cellular differentiation. Interestingly, these cell-specific gene expression patterns can be affected by an organism's environment throughout its lifetime leading to phenotypical changes that have the potential of altering risk of some diseases. Both cell-specific gene expression signatures and environment mediated changes in expression patterns can be explained by a complex network of modifications to the DNA, histone proteins and degree of DNA packaging called epigenetic marks. Several areas of research have formed to study these epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and microRNA (miRNA). The original definition of epigenetics incorporates inheritable but reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering base pairs. Even though not all of the above listed epigenetic traits have demonstrated heritability, they can all alter gene transcription without modification to the underlying genetic sequence. Because these epigenetic patterns can also be affected by an organism's environment, they serve as an important bridge between life experiences and phenotypes. Epigenetic patterns may change throughout one's lifespan, by an early life experience, environmental exposure or nutritional status. Epigenetic signatures influenced by the environment may determine our appearance, behavior, stress response, disease susceptibility, and even longevity. The interaction between types of epigenetic modifications in response to environmental factors and how environmental cues affect epigenetic patterns will further elucidate how gene transcription can be affectively altered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Serine proteases.

              Over one third of all known proteolytic enzymes are serine proteases. Among these, the trypsins underwent the most predominant genetic expansion yielding the enzymes responsible for digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, fertilization, apoptosis, and immunity. The success of this expansion resides in a highly efficient fold that couples catalysis and regulatory interactions. Added complexity comes from the recent observation of a significant conformational plasticity of the trypsin fold. A new paradigm emerges where two forms of the protease, E* and E, are in allosteric equilibrium and determine biological activity and specificity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Allergol Immunopathol (Madr)
                Allergol Immunopathol (Madr)
                Allergologia et Immunopathologia
                SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
                0301-0546
                1578-1267
                21 February 2017
                November-December 2017
                21 February 2017
                : 45
                : 6
                : 579-591
                Affiliations
                [0005]Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego 92182, USA
                Article
                S0301-0546(16)30164-1
                10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.011
                7126602
                28236540
                64891c38-f160-45aa-bd6f-076b4706cda2
                © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 1 August 2016
                : 31 October 2016
                Categories
                Article

                serine protease,inflammation,allergenicity,glycosylation,serine protease inhibitors

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