Recently, Chlamydia pneumoniae is the microorganism frequently implicated in the infection-based inflammatory atherogenous hypothesis. Although in vitro experimental data and initial sero-epidemiologic, pathology-based studies and antibiotic trials supported this interesting hypothesis, later data are conflicting. Some confounding factors are the causes of uncertainty; lacking of standard methods for C. pneumoniae detection, co-existence of other atherosclerotic risk factors and anti-inflammatory effects of antibiotics used in clinical trials seem to be the principal ones. Standardization of methodology used, antibiotic trials with a different orientation-design and a vaccine preparation that eventually will be tested in clinical trials with a long follow-up, should provide a definite answer regarding the probability C. pneumoniae to be a main, a secondary or an irrelevant factor to atherosclerosis. Studies linking C. pneumoniae to inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis in renal failure patients are accumulated but limitations are similar to the above mentioned.