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      Fructo-Oligosaccharide Alleviates Soybean-Induced Anaphylaxis in Piglets by Modulating Gut Microbes


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          Soybean-induced anaphylaxis poses a severe threat to the health of humans and animals. Some commensal bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, can prevent and treat allergic diseases. Prebiotic oligosaccharides, a food/diet additive, can enhance health and performance via modulating gut microbes and immune responses. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) could alleviate soybean-induced anaphylaxis by modulating gut microbes. Piglets (21 days of age) were sensitized with a diet containing 5% soybean and 30% peeled soybean meal. The treatment with 0.6% FOS started 1 day prior to sensitization and continued everyday thereafter. Blood was collected for measurements of immune indices. The DNA samples isolated from fresh intestinal contents of the middle jejunum (M-jejunum), posterior jejunum (P-jejunum), ileum, and cecum were used for gene sequencing based on 16S rRNA. Our results showed that there was an increase of glycinin-specific IgG, β-conglycinin-specific IgG, total serum IgG and IgE, and occurrence of diarrhea in piglets sensitized with soybean antigen. There was a decrease in interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10 and an increase of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in piglets with FOS treatment, compared with the piglets without FOS treatment. Improvement of intestinal microbes was indicated mostly by the increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in M-jejunum and the decrease of Proteobacteria in P-jejunum and ileum. The correlation analysis indicated that FOS treatment decreased those closely related to the key species of gut microbes. These results suggest that FOS can alleviate soybean antigen-induced anaphylaxis, which is associated with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in M-jejunum and declined Proteobacteria in P-jejunum and ileum of piglets.

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          Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin.

          Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are frequently tested in the management of allergic diseases or gastroenteritis. It is hypothesized that these probiotics have immunoregulatory properties and promote mucosal tolerance, which is in part mediated by regulatory T cells (Treg cells). On the basis of pathogenic or tissue-specific priming, dendritic cells (DC) acquire different T cell-instructive signals and drive the differentiation of naive T H cells into either T H 1, T H 2, or regulatory effector T cells. We studied in what way different species of lactobacilli prime human DCs for their ability to drive Treg cells. Human monocyte-derived DCs were cultured in vitro with lactobacilli of different species. Two different species of lactobacilli, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus casei , but not Lactobacillus plantarum, prime monocyte-derived DCs to drive the development of Treg cells. These Treg cells produced increased levels of IL-10 and were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of bystander T cells in an IL-10-dependent fashion. Strikingly, both L reuteri and L casei , but not L plantarum , bind the C-type lectin DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Blocking antibodies to DC-SIGN inhibited the induction of the Treg cells by these probiotic bacteria, stressing that ligation of DC-SIGN can actively prime DCs to induce Treg cells. The targeting of DC-SIGN by certain probiotic bacteria might explain their beneficial effect in the treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis and Crohn's disease.
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              Oral probiotics reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants.

              We evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A prospective, masked, randomized control trial was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing the incidence and severity of NEC among VLBW ( or= stage 2). Three hundred sixty-seven infants were enrolled: 180 in the study group and 187 in the control group. The demographic and clinical variables were similar in both groups. The incidence of death or NEC (>or= stage 2) was significantly lower in the study group (9 of 180 vs 24 of 187). The incidence of NEC (>or= stage 2) was also significantly lower in the study when compared with the control group (2 of 180 vs 10 of 187). There were 6 cases of severe NEC (Bell stage 3) in the control group and none in the study group. None of the positive blood culture grew Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species. Infloran as probiotics fed enterally with breast milk reduces the incidence and severity of NEC in VLBW infants.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 November 2018
                : 9
                1Key Laboratory of Animal Production, Product Quality and Security, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University , Changchun, China
                2Institute of Zoonosis, Department of Public Health, Jilin University , Changchun, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Claudio Fabricio Gonzalez, University of Florida, United States

                Reviewed by: Jie Yin, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture (CAS), China; Elvira Maria Hebert, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

                *Correspondence: Yuan Zhao, zhaoyuan4CL52@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Microbial Physiology and Metabolism, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2018 Chang, Zhao, Qin and Zhang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 12, Words: 0
                Original Research


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