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      Ketofol for monitored anesthesia care in shoulder arthroscopy and labral repair: a case report

      1 , 2 , 3

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove Medical Press

      ketamine, propofol, ketofol, sedation, case report

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          Abstract

          A 21-year-old male (body mass index: 28.3) with a history of asthma and reactive airway disease since childhood underwent left shoulder arthroscopy and labral repair surgery under monitored anesthesia care. Because the procedure was performed in the beach chair position, access to the patient’s airway was limited throughout. To avoid general anesthesia and to limit potential complications associated with monitored anesthesia care, a ketofol admixture was used. This case demonstrates that, in conjunction with regional anesthesia, ketofol may be an acceptable alternative to propofol for maintenance in outpatient orthopedic procedures.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Adverse events associated with ketamine for procedural sedation in adults.

          Ketamine is widely used as a procedural sedation agent in pediatrics, where its safety and efficacy are supported by numerous studies. Emergency physicians use ketamine infrequently in adults, as it is believed to have a more significant side effect profile in this population. However, adult data on ketamine use in the emergency medicine literature are sparse. Our objective was to determine ketamine's adverse effect profile in adults when used for procedural sedation. We performed a literature review based on adverse effect research methodology recommendations. PubMed, EMBASE, TOXNET, and a variety of specialized databases were queried without regard to publication date or language. Experts were contacted to locate additional data. Inclusion criteria included adult study; ketamine used to facilitate the performance of painful procedures; dose of at least 1 mg/kg intravenous or at least 2 mg/kg intramuscular; original data and adverse events reported; spontaneously breathing patient, and no continuous cotherapies. Studies that met inclusion criteria were abstracted onto structured forms and their results qualitatively summarized. Of the 5512 unique citations that were evaluated, 87 met criteria for inclusion. Most studies were performed in the 1970s and published in the anesthesia literature. Contexts, end points, and methodological quality varied widely across studies. Ketamine reliably produces conditions that facilitate the performance of painful procedures. Pharyngeal reflexes are generally preserved and cardiovascular tone stimulated, including a rise in blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand. Laryngospasm and airway obstruction are reported, and though ketamine is a respiratory stimulant, a brief period of apnea around the time of injection is common. Reports of significant cardiorespiratory adverse events are rare, despite ketamine's frequent use in austere, poorly monitored settings. Dysphoric emergence phenomena occur in 10% to 20% of cases; sedating medications are effective in preventing and managing these reactions. When ketamine is used for procedural sedation in adults, emergence phenomena occur in 10% to 20% of patients. Although providers must be prepared to recognize and manage airway obstruction, cardiorespiratory adverse events are rare and typically do not affect outcomes.
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            The role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery: from multimodal analgesia to perioperative medical care.

            Improving perioperative efficiency and throughput has become increasingly important in the modern practice of anesthesiology. Fast-track surgery represents a multidisciplinary approach to improving perioperative efficiency by facilitating recovery after both minor (i.e., outpatient) and major (inpatient) surgery procedures. In this article we focus on the expanding role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery. A multidisciplinary group of clinical investigators met at McGill University in the Fall of 2005 to discuss current anesthetic and surgical practices directed at improving the postoperative recovery process. A subgroup of the attendees at this conference was assigned the task of reviewing the peer-reviewed literature on this topic as it related to the role of the anesthesiologist as a perioperative physician. Anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians play a key role in fast-track surgery through their choice of preoperative medication, anesthetics and techniques, use of prophylactic drugs to minimize side effects (e.g., pain, nausea and vomiting, dizziness), as well as the administration of adjunctive drugs to maintain major organ system function during and after surgery. The decisions of the anesthesiologist as a key perioperative physician are of critical importance to the surgical care team in developing a successful fast-track surgery program.
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              Ketamine: use in anesthesia.

              The role of ketamine anesthesia in the prehospital, emergency department and operating theater settings is not well defined. A nonsystematic review of ketamine was performed by authors from Australia, Europe, and North America. Results were discussed among authors and the final manuscript accepted. Ketamine is a useful agent for induction of anesthesia, procedural sedation, and analgesia. Its properties are appealing in many awkward clinical scenarios. Practitioners need to be cognizant of its side effects and limitations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                17 June 2016
                : 9
                : 417-420
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, New York, NY, USA
                [2 ]Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kevin C Lee, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA, Email kcl2136@ 123456cumc.columbia.edu
                Article
                jpr-9-417
                10.2147/JPR.S108503
                4918891
                27382327
                © 2016 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                case report, ketamine, propofol, ketofol, sedation

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