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      Jatropha Diterpenes: a Review

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          Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature.

          Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly emitted volatiles individually. Three compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and cis-alpha-bergamotene) increased egg predation rates by a generalist predator; linalool and the complete blend decreased lepidopteran oviposition rates. As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature.
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            Plant Terpenoids: Biosynthesis and Ecological Functions

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              Production and engineering of terpenoids in plant cell culture.

              Terpenoids are a diverse class of natural products that have many functions in the plant kingdom and in human health and nutrition. Their chemical diversity has led to the discovery of over 40,000 different structures, with several classes serving as important pharmaceutical agents, including the anticancer agents paclitaxel (Taxol) and terpenoid-derived indole alkaloids. Many terpenoid compounds are found in low yield from natural sources, so plant cell cultures have been investigated as an alternate production strategy. Metabolic engineering of whole plants and plant cell cultures is an effective tool to both increase terpenoid yield and alter terpenoid distribution for desired properties such as enhanced flavor, fragrance or color. Recent advances in defining terpenoid metabolic pathways, particularly in secondary metabolism, enhanced knowledge concerning regulation of terpenoid accumulation, and application of emerging plant systems biology approaches, have enabled metabolic engineering of terpenoid production. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of terpenoid metabolism, with a special focus on production of important pharmaceutically active secondary metabolic terpenoids in plant cell cultures. Strategies for defining pathways and uncovering rate-influencing steps in global metabolism, and applying this information for successful terpenoid metabolic engineering, are emphasized.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
                J Am Oil Chem Soc
                Springer Nature
                0003-021X
                1558-9331
                March 2011
                December 2010
                : 88
                : 3
                : 301-322
                Article
                10.1007/s11746-010-1720-9
                649f7740-ccec-494f-9db6-f76dc9926ce7
                © 2011
                History

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