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      Tests to assist in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma in adults: a generic protocol

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          Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012.

          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). © 2014 UICC.
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            Cancer statistics, 2015.

            Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] Program), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Program of Cancer Registries), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,658,370 new cancer cases and 589,430 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2015. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2007-2011), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates (13 oldest SEER registries) declined by 1.8% per year in men and were stable in women, while cancer death rates nationwide decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.4% per year in women. The overall cancer death rate decreased from 215.1 (per 100,000 population) in 1991 to 168.7 in 2011, a total relative decline of 22%. However, the magnitude of the decline varied by state, and was generally lowest in the South (∼15%) and highest in the Northeast (≥20%). For example, there were declines of 25% to 30% in Maryland, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, and Delaware, which collectively averted 29,000 cancer deaths in 2011 as a result of this progress. Further gains can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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              Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.

              An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. A total of 676 HLA-A*0201-positive patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, whose disease had progressed while they were receiving therapy for metastatic disease, were randomly assigned, in a 3:1:1 ratio, to receive ipilimumab plus gp100 (403 patients), ipilimumab alone (137), or gp100 alone (136). Ipilimumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight, was administered with or without gp100 every 3 weeks for up to four treatments (induction). Eligible patients could receive reinduction therapy. The primary end point was overall survival. The median overall survival was 10.0 months among patients receiving ipilimumab plus gp100, as compared with 6.4 months among patients receiving gp100 alone (hazard ratio for death, 0.68; P<0.001). The median overall survival with ipilimumab alone was 10.1 months (hazard ratio for death in the comparison with gp100 alone, 0.66; P=0.003). No difference in overall survival was detected between the ipilimumab groups (hazard ratio with ipilimumab plus gp100, 1.04; P=0.76). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 10 to 15% of patients treated with ipilimumab and in 3% treated with gp100 alone. There were 14 deaths related to the study drugs (2.1%), and 7 were associated with immune-related adverse events. Ipilimumab, with or without a gp100 peptide vaccine, as compared with gp100 alone, improved overall survival in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. Adverse events can be severe, long-lasting, or both, but most are reversible with appropriate treatment. (Funded by Medarex and Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094653.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
                Wiley
                14651858
                October 21 2015
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Birmingham; Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Birmingham UK B15 2TT
                [2 ]Churchill Hospital; Department of Dermatology; Old Road Headington Oxford UK OX3 7LJ
                [3 ]University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Internal Medicine; Department of Medicine, Office of Education UPMC Montefiore Hospital, N715 Pittsburgh USA PA, 15213
                [4 ]Royal Stoke Hospital; Plastic Surgery; Stoke-on-Trent Staffordshire UK ST4 6QG
                [5 ]NHS; Dermatology; 104 Times Square Avenue Brierley Hill Dudley UK DY5 1SX
                [6 ]School of Community Health Sciences; Division of Epidemiology and Public Health; University of Nottingham Nottingham UK NG7 2UH
                [7 ]University of Cambridge; Public Health & Primary Care; Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway Cambridge UK CB1 8RN
                [8 ]NHS Tayside, Ninewells Hospital; Dermatology; Ninewells Drive Dundee UK DD1 9SY
                [9 ]United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust; Dermatology; Greetwell Street Lincoln UK LN2 5QY
                [10 ]Keyworth Medical Practice; Bunny Lane Keyworth Nottingham UK NG12 5JU
                [11 ]The University of Nottingham; c/o Cochrane Skin Group; Nottingham UK
                [12 ]The University of Nottingham; Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology; Queen's Medical Centre Derby Road Nottingham UK NG7 2UH
                Article
                10.1002/14651858.CD011902
                © 2015
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