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      Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation: Possible method for respirator disinfection to facilitate reuse during the COVID-19 pandemic

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          Abstract

          To the Editor: The ability to disinfect and reuse disposable N95 filtering facepiece respirators is urgently needed during the current COVID-19 pandemic because supplies are running low in hospitals throughout the United States and abroad. Ultraviolet (UV) germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is one possible method for respirator disinfection to facilitate the reuse of dwindling supplies. Dermatology offices often use narrow-band UVB to treat skin diseases. If necessary, we propose a possible repurposing of phototherapy devices, including these UVB units, to serve as a platform for UVC germicidal disinfection. UVGI is a disinfection method that uses UVC radiation to inactivate microorganisms by causing DNA damage and preventing replication. Previous studies have shown that UVC can inactivate coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). 1 One study of respirators contaminated with H1N1 influenza A found significant reductions (≥3-log reduction) in viable influenza virus under substantial artificial soiling conditions after being treated for 60 to 70 seconds at an irradiance of 17 mW/cm2, resulting in a UVGI dose of ∼1 J/cm2 measured at 254 nm. 2 The efficacy of this dose has been verified in additional studies, and higher doses (up to 2 J/cm2) have been shown to provide diminished benefit after 1 J/cm2. 3 , 4 It is recommended to treat used masks, but not visibly soiled, to allow the 3-log reduction reported in the literature to be sufficient to achieve safe reuse levels. 5 It is important to note that the time to deliver 1 J/cm2 depends on the irradiance; hence, it can be longer or shorter depending on the delivery device's capabilities. In a prototype model that has been developed (Fig 1 ), this dose can be delivered in 1 minute and 40 seconds at an irradiance of 10 mW/cm2. The distance from the lamp to the top of the table in Fig 1 is approximately 14 cm. Fig 1 Image of prototype being developed by Daavlin. The field of irradiation is approximately 15 inches × 45 inches, and depending on the manufacturer of the mask, this would allow for the treatment of ∼18 to 27 masks (2 minutes per side). (A) With ultraviolet light on and (B) ultraviolet light off. (Photographs used with permission of Bob Golding, Daavlin, Byron, Ohio.) However, UV radiation does degrade polymers, which presents the possibility that UVGI exposure, while decontaminating, may also reduce the efficacy of the respirator and decrease protection to workers. Lindsley et al 6 exposed 4 different models of N95 filtering facepiece respirators to UVGI doses of 120 to 950 J/cm2. Results of the study showed that UVGI exposure led to a small increase in particle penetration (up to 1.25%) and had little effect on the flow resistance. However, at higher UVGI doses, the strength of the layers of the respirator material was substantially reduced (in some cases, >90%), but this significantly varied among the different models. UVGI had less of an effect on the respirator straps: a dose of 2360 J/cm2 reduced the breaking strength of the straps by 20% to 51%. 6 It should be noted that the dosages used in the study above are 100- to 1000-times higher than those shown to disinfect H1N1 influenza A–contaminated respirators. Therefore, considering that many of our health care providers are using substitutes for N95 filtering facepiece respirators that offer very limited degree of protection, using UVGI and repurposing phototherapy devices could be the best practical solution at this time.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          J Am Acad Dermatol
          J. Am. Acad. Dermatol
          Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
          by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.
          0190-9622
          1097-6787
          1 April 2020
          June 2020
          1 April 2020
          : 82
          : 6
          : 1511-1512
          Affiliations
          [a ]Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan
          [b ]Department of Physics & Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
          [c ]Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
          Author notes
          []Correspondence to: Iltefat H. Hamzavi, MD, Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Medical Center New Center One, 3031 W Grand Blvd, Ste 800, Detroit, MI 48202 ihamzav1@ 123456hfhs.org
          Article
          S0190-9622(20)30508-9
          10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.085
          7214862
          32246972
          © 2020 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.

          Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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