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      Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Aim

          To test the efficacy and safety of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) in doses up to 180 mg/day to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevent any drug relapse in individuals with a co-diagnosis of ADHD and amphetamine dependence.

          Design

          Randomized placebo-controlled 24-week double-blind trial with parallel groups design.

          Setting

          Participants were recruited from medium security prisons in Sweden. The medication started within 2 weeks before release from prison and continued in out-patient care with twice-weekly visits, including once-weekly cognitive behavioural therapy.

          Participants

          Fifty-four men with a mean age of 42 years, currently incarcerated, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and amphetamine dependence.

          Measurements

          Change in self-reported ADHD symptoms, relapse to any drug use (amphetamine and other drugs) measured by urine toxicology, retention to treatment, craving and time to relapse.

          Findings

          The MPH-treated group reduced their ADHD symptoms during the trial ( P = 0.011) and had a significantly higher proportion of drug-negative urines compared with the placebo group ( P = 0.047), including more amphetamine-negative urines ( P = 0.019) and better retention to treatment ( P = 0.032).

          Conclusions

          Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders

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            The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population.

            A self-report screening scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed in conjunction with revision of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The current report presents data on concordance of the ASRS and of a short-form ASRS screener with blind clinical diagnoses in a community sample. The ASRS includes 18 questions about frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. The ASRS screener consists of six out of these 18 questions that were selected based on stepwise logistic regression to optimize concordance with the clinical classification. ASRS responses were compared to blind clinical ratings of DSM-IV adult ADHD in a sample of 154 respondents who previously participated in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), oversampling those who reported childhood ADHD and adult persistence. Each ASRS symptom measure was significantly related to the comparable clinical symptom rating, but varied substantially in concordance (Cohen's kappa in the range 0.16-0.81). Optimal scoring to predict clinical syndrome classifications was to sum unweighted dichotomous responses across all 18 ASRS questions. However, because of the wide variation in symptom-level concordance, the unweighted six-question ASRS screener outperformed the unweighted 18-question ASRS in sensitivity (68.7% v. 56.3%), specificity (99.5% v. 98.3%), total classification accuracy (97.9% v. 96.2%), and kappa (0.76 v. 0.58). Clinical calibration in larger samples might show that a weighted version of the 18-question ASRS outperforms the six-question ASRS screener. Until that time, however, the unweighted screener should be preferred to the full ASRS, both in community surveys and in clinical outreach and case-finding initiatives.
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              The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

              In an attempt to surmount the problem of retrospectively establishing the childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the authors constructed the 61-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adults to use to describe their own childhood behavior. In this paper they present their initial data collection and evaluation of the instrument's validity. The scale was administered to 81 adult outpatients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 100 "normal" adults, and 70 psychiatric adult outpatients with unipolar depression. The authors analyzed data from the 25 items of the scale that showed the greatest difference between the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal comparison subjects and the relationship between the WURS and the patients' parents' judgment of childhood activity as measured by the Parents' Rating Scale. The patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had significantly higher mean scores on all 25 items than did the two comparison groups. The difference between the mean total scores of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal subjects was also highly significant. A cutoff score of 46 or higher correctly identified 86% of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 99% of the normal subjects, and 81% of the depressed subjects. Correlations obtained between WURS scores and Parents' Rating Scale scores were moderate but impressive. The ability of WURS scores to predict response to methylphenidate replicated the authors' finding regarding the ability of Parents' Rating Scale scores to predict response to pemoline. The WURS is sensitive in identifying childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and may be useful in recognizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with ambiguous adult psychopathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Addiction
                Addiction
                add
                Addiction (Abingdon, England)
                BlackWell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                0965-2140
                1360-0443
                March 2014
                01 December 2013
                : 109
                : 3
                : 440-449
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden
                [2 ]Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Psychology, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Maija Konstenius, Kaolinska Solna R5:01, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: maija.konstenius@ 123456ki.se
                [*]

                *The license for this article was changed to a CC-BY-NC-ND license on 05/02/2014, after initial online publication on 02/12/2013.

                Article
                10.1111/add.12369
                4226329
                24118269
                © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. *

                Categories
                Research Report

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                adhd, methylphenidate, pharmacotherapy, substance use

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