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      Exercise capacity in COPD patients with exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with COPD is associated with reduced exercise capacity. A subgroup of COPD patients has normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) at rest, but develops high mPAP relative to cardiac output (CO) during exercise, a condition we refer to as exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH). We hypothesized that COPD patients with EIPH could be identified by cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and that these patients have lower exercise capacity and more abnormal CPET parameters compared to COPD patients with normal hemodynamic exercise response.

          Methods

          Ninety-three stable outpatients with COPD underwent right heart catheterization with the measurement of mPAP, CO, and capillary wedge pressure at rest and during supine exercise. Resting mPAP <25 mmHg with ΔmPAP/ΔCO slope above or below 3 mmHg/L/min were defined as COPD-EIPH and COPD-normal, respectively. Pulmonary function tests and CPET with arterial blood gases were performed. Linear mixed models were fitted to estimate differences between the groups with adjustment for gender, age, and airflow obstruction.

          Results

          EIPH was observed in 45% of the study population. Maximal workload was lower in COPD-EIPH compared to COPD-normal, whereas other CPET measurements at peak exercise in % predicted values were similar between the two groups. After adjustment for gender, age, and airflow obstruction, patients with COPD-EIPH showed significantly greater increase in oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and lactate with increasing work load, as well as more reduction in pH compared to those with normal hemodynamic responses.

          Conclusion

          COPD-EIPH could not be discriminated from COPD-normal by CPET. However, COPD-EIPH experienced a higher cost of exercise in terms of higher oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and lactate for a given increase in workload compared to COPD-normal.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a community-based study.

          This study sought to define the prevalence, severity, and significance of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the general community. Although HFpEF is known to cause PH, its development is highly variable. Community-based data are lacking, and the relative contribution of pulmonary venous versus pulmonary arterial hypertension (HTN) to PH in HFpEF is unknown. We hypothesized that PH would be a marker of symptomatic pulmonary congestion, distinguishing HFpEF from pre-clinical hypertensive heart disease. This community-based study of 244 HFpEF patients (age 76 +/- 13 years; 45% male) was followed up using Doppler echocardiography over 3 years. Control subjects were 719 adults with HTN without HF (age 66 +/- 10 years; 44% male). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was derived from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity and PH defined as PASP >35 mm Hg. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was estimated from the ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early mitral annular diastolic velocity. In HFpEF, PH was present in 83% and the median (25th, 75th percentile) PASP was 48 (37, 56) mm Hg. PASP increased with PCWP (r = 0.21; p < 0.007). Adjusting for PCWP, PASP was higher in HFpEF than HTN (p < 0.001). The PASP distinguished HFpEF from HTN with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.91 (p < 0.001) and strongly predicted mortality in HFpEF (hazard ratio: 1.3 per 10 mm Hg; p < 0.001). PH is highly prevalent and often severe in HFpEF. Although pulmonary venous HTN contributes to PH, it does not fully account for the severity of PH in HFpEF, suggesting that a component of pulmonary arterial HTN also contributes. The potent effect of PASP on mortality lends support for therapies aimed at pulmonary arterial HTN in HFpEF.
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            Pulmonary arterial pressure during rest and exercise in healthy subjects: a systematic review.

            According to current guidelines, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is diagnosed when mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) exceeds 25 mmHg at rest or 30 mmHg during exercise. Issues that remain unclear are the classification of Ppa values 30 mmHg during exercise is always pathological. We performed a comprehensive literature review and analysed all accessible data obtained by right heart catheter studies from healthy individuals to determine normal Ppa at rest and during exercise. Data on 1,187 individuals from 47 studies in 13 countries were included. Data were stratified for sex, age, geographical origin, body position and exercise level. Ppa at rest was 14.0+/-3.3 mmHg and this value was independent of sex and ethnicity. Resting Ppa was slightly influenced by posture (supine 14.0+/-3.3 mmHg, upright 13.6+/-3.1 mmHg) and age ( or = 50 yrs: 14.7+/-4.0 mmHg). Ppa during exercise was dependent on exercise level and age. During mild exercise, Ppa was 19.4+/-4.8 mmHg in subjects aged or = 50 yrs (p<0.001). In conclusion, while Ppa at rest is virtually independent of age and rarely exceeds 20 mmHg, exercise Ppa is age-related and frequently exceeds 30 mmHg, especially in elderly individuals, which makes it difficult to define normal Ppa values during exercise.
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              Severe pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Severe pulmonary hypertension occurs occasionally in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no detailed description of these patients is available. To identify and characterize patients with COPD and severe pulmonary hypertension. Retrospective study of 27 patients with COPD with severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery mean pressure [Ppa], > or = 40 mm Hg) among 998 patients who underwent right heart catheterization between 1990 and 2002 as part of a workup for chronic respiratory failure during a period of disease stability. Of the 27 patients, 16 had another disease capable of causing pulmonary hypertension. The remaining 11 (11 of 998, 1.1%) patients had COPD as the only cause of pulmonary hypertension, with a median Ppa of 48 mm Hg (interquartile range, 46-50). They had an unusual pattern of cardiopulmonary abnormalities with mild to moderate airway obstruction, severe hypoxemia, hypocapnia, and a very low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (p < 0.01 compared with a control group of patients with COPD). Exertional dyspnea was more severe (p < 0.01) and survival was shorter (p = 0.0026) than in the control subjects. Severe pulmonary hypertension is uncommon in patients with COPD. When it occurs, another cause must be sought. COPD with severe pulmonary hypertension and no other possible cause shares features with pulmonary vascular diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                31 October 2018
                : 13
                : 3599-3610
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, LHL Hospital Gardermoen, Jessheim, ingunn.skjorten@ 123456lhl.no
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, ingunn.skjorten@ 123456lhl.no
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog
                [4 ]Section of Vascular Investigations, Oslo University Hospital-Aker
                [5 ]Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital-Aker
                [6 ]Clinic of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine, Oslo, Norway
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ingunn Skjørten, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, LHL Hospital Gardermoen, Postboks 103 Jessheimbyen, 2051 Jessheimbyen, Norway, Tel +47 48 25 33 25, Email ingunn.skjorten@ 123456lhl.no
                Article
                copd-13-3599
                10.2147/COPD.S161175
                6219408
                © 2018 Skjørten et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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